Medical Servants of God- HALL OF GLORY - Those of 'Cause' (Nominated for Veneration)

Over two millennia, Christian doctors and nurses, inspired by the example and teaching of Jesus of Nazareth, have been at the forefront of efforts to alleviate human suffering, cure disease, and advance knowledge and understanding. Jesus of Nazareth taught: 'Whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for me.' (Matthew 25:40) The fact that the first "hospitals" as we know them today began due to monks, nuns, and missionaries since the earliest days of the Christian movement, bears a conspicuous mark on the ascent of human medical care. The establishment of Christian hospitals brought personalized care to the sick, irrespective of race, age or nationality. Monastic centers served as the only organized health care centers with teaching centers and sacred libraries of the medical works of the Greeks, Judiasm, and Islam. The Knights Hospitallers were responsible for building hospitals all over the Levant, the Mediterranean (Cyprus, Cos, Rhoades, and Malta), and Germany, impelling a renaissance in medicine, nursing and surgery.

As well as taking a leading role in caring for the sick, Christians also played a very important part in the furthering of medical knowledge. Together, Jews and Christians took the lead in collecting and copying manuscripts all over Europe after the burning of the Great Library at Alexandria. This rescued much of the medical knowledge for the religiously tolerant Arabic Empire and for later generations. Christianity thus give medicals men and women a new perspective and allegiance that their lives are spent in joyful, grateful service of God who has redeemed them and given them new life. In many ways, Christianity and medicine are natural allies; medicine gives men and women unique opportunities to express their faith in daily practical caring for others, embodying the commands of our Lord Jesus Christ -'whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for me.' (Matthew 25:40) Read More...

SMOCH as the torch of Monastic Medicine makes public recognition of the little recognized Christian doctors and nurses, inspired by the example and teaching of Jesus of Nazareth, have been at the forefront of efforts to alleviate human suffering, cure disease, and advance knowledge and understanding. The Christian Church has played a major role in developing and shaping the practice of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy as we know it today. Thus, in canonical heritage, it is the duty of our Knights to make public record of Christian medical men and women who have consistently raised the social status of the weak, sick and handicapped and sought to love and care for them to the utmost of their abilities. Thus the Grand Master proposed by edict the process of documentation for our heroes entry into the venerable HALL OF GLORY – THE MEDICAL SERVANTS OF GOD. We thus acknowledge tribute to those who have solemnly contributed to the ascent of our knowledge of care for the human frame and soul.

The SMOKH process of documenting the life and virtues of a Christian medical man or woman begins with this web page from the office of the Bishop of the diocese - SMOCH -  for a Cause for Veneration, documented and communicated to the Sovereign Council for consideration. Once a Cause has begun, the individual is called a Medical Servant of God. During this first phase of Postulation now established by the SMOCH diocese to promote the Cause, contributors must gather testimony about the life and virtues of the Medical Servant of God. Public and private writings must be collected and examined for due consideration. This documentary phase of the process takes time and concludes with the judgment of the SMOKH diocesan tribunal by vote of the Sovereign Council, and the ultimate decision rests with the Bishop, that the heroic virtues of the Servant of God have or have not been demonstrated. The results, along with the documentation are communicated to the Congregation for the Causes of Medical Servants of God and raise the candidate to the rank of 'Venerable Medical Servant of God'. The venerables are then posted in eulogy on this web site.

Venerated Saints are also listed below for historical perspective.

Ben Sira (second century BCE). Sage.

Ben Sira was a second century BCE Jewish scribe, sage, and allegorist from Jerusalem, and the author of the Wisdom of Sirach, or the "Book of Ecclesiasticus". He is also known as Joshua ben Sirach, Shim`on ben Yeshu`a ben Sira, Jesus son of Sirach, or Jesus Siracides. He wrote his work in Hebrew, possibly in Alexandria, Egypt ca. 180–175 BCE, where he is thought to have established a school. This text had later been translated into Greek by his grandson. The Biblical Scripture we follow honors doctors as we see in Ecclesiasticus: 38:1: Honor the physician with the honor due him, according to your need of him, for the Lord created him;
2: for healing comes from the Most High, and he will receive a gift from the king.
3: The skill of the physician lifts up his head, and in the presence of great men he is admired.
4: The Lord created medicines from the earth, and a sensible man will not despise them.
6: And he gave skill to men that he might be glorified in his marvelous works.
7: By them he heals and takes away pain;
8: the pharmacist makes of them a compound. His works will never be finished; and from him health is upon the face of the earth.
9: My son, when you are sick do not be negligent, but pray to the Lord, and he will heal you.
10: Give up your faults and direct your hands aright, and cleanse your heart from all sin.
12: And give the physician his place, for the Lord created him; let him not leave you, for there is need of him.
13: There is a time when success lies in the hands of physicians,
14: for they too will pray to the Lord that he should grant them success in diagnosis and in healing, for the sake of preserving life

John the Baptist, (c. 5 BC – c. 30 AD). Preacher, ascetic, healer, and baptizer of Jesus Christ.

John is described as having the unique practice of baptism for the forgiveness of sins. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus.‪ ‬Scholars generally believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John. John the Baptist is also mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus. Some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism, healing, asceticism, and veganism.

Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC to AD 30–33)

The central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God. Christianity regards Jesus as the awaited Messiah (or "Christ") of the Old Testament and refers to him as Jesus Christ.

Jude the Apostle

According to the New Testament, Jude was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. He is generally identified with Thaddeus, and is also variously called Jude of James, Jude Thaddaeus, Judas Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus. He is sometimes identified with Jude, the brother of Jesus, but is clearly distinguished from Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed Jesus prior to his crucifixion. According to tradition, after his martyrdom, pilgrims came to his grave to pray and many of them experienced the powerful intercessions of St. Jude. Thus the title, 'The Saint for the Hopeless and the Despaired'. St. Bridget of Sweden & St. Bernard had visions from God asking each to accept St. Jude as 'The Patron Saint of the Impossible.'

St. Jude is the Patron Saint of the Sacred Medical Order.

Saint Lazarus

Lazarus of Bethany, also known as Saint Lazarus or Lazarus of the Four Days, is the subject of a prominent miracle attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John, in which Jesus restores him to life four days after his death. The Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic traditions offer varying accounts of the later events of his life. The name "Lazarus" is frequently used in science and popular culture in reference to apparent restoration to life.

Patron Saint Order of St. Lazarus.

Saint Luke (Fl. 1st century, active 50 AD).  Physician. 
St. Luke was one of the four Evangelists. Author of the Third Gospel and its sequel, the Acts of the Apostles.  Luke's name-of Latin origin-indicates that he apparently was not of Jewish derivation. The earliest surviving testimony describes him as a Syrian from Antioch. His abundant acquaintance with the Antiochean Church, as well as his knowledge of literary Greek, both illustrated in his writings, supports this testimony. Tradition and one text of St. Paul's (Colossians 4:14) say that Luke was a trained physician. His Gospel exhibits a Greek literary style absent from the other Gospels and documents of the New Testament. Luke, apparently, was a well-educated man. His Greek was as polished as that of such classical writers as Xenophon.

Harnack's recent book, "Luke the Physician," makes it very clear that not only the Third Gospel, but also the Acts, could only have been written by a man thoroughly familiar with the Greek medical terms of his time, and who had surely had the advantage of a training in the medical sciences at Alexandria. This makes such an important link in our understanding in Christian medical traditions.

St. Phoebe (Fl. 1st century). Deaconess.
Phoebe (Koine Greek Φοίβη) was a first-century Christian woman mentioned by the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, verses 16:1-2. A notable woman in the church of Cenchreae, she was trusted by Paul to deliver his letter to the Romans. In writing to the church that almost surely met in her home,‪[2]‬ Paul refers to her both as a deacon (Gk. diakonon masc.) and as a helper or patron of many. It was in all probability St. Phoebe, the friend of St. Paul (Romans 16:1), who organized on a wide scale the nursing of the sick and poor. History is inclined to think so, as we know that she was a church deacon (diakonus), that she made journeys to Rome, evidently in connection with her work, and that "she succored many," St. Paul among the number, thus proving herself a woman of character and ability.

Alexander Of Phrygia, First Dreadfully Tortured, And Then Executed With The Sword, For The Confession Of The Son Of God, On The River Rhone, About The Year 172.

The ancient writers mention a certain pious man, called Alexander, a physician, and native of Phrygia, who was put to death on the same day and place when and where Attalus laid down his life. Concerning the cause of his imprisonment and death, it is stated, that, when Attalus and other Christians were being examined, this Alexander of Phrygia stood near the judgment seat, and considerably strengthened and encouraged, by motions and signs, the Christians who were making their defense and confession before the Judge, to the end that they should continue steadfast in the truth once received. When the people that stood around, murmured on this account, he was apprehended, and, being interrogated in regard to his views, he answered: "I am a Christian," and made the same confession that Attalus and the others who had been apprehended and were standing before the tribunal, had made. He was therefore immediately sentenced to the amphitheatre, there, together with others, to be forthwith torn or devoured by the beasts.

Saint Helena or Saint Helen (Latin: Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; c. 250 – c. 330) was the consort of the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus and the mother of the emperor Constantine the Great. She is an important figure in the history of Christianity and the world due to her major influence on her son and her own contributions in placing Christianity at the heart of Western Civilization. She is traditionally credited with a pilgrimage to Syria Palaestina, during which she is claimed to have discovered the True Cross. She is revered as a saint by the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, the Roman Catholic, and the Anglican as well as commemorated by the Lutheran Church.

Medical Servants of God
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (AD 129 – c. 200/c. 216), Physician.
Galen of Pergamon was a prominent Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman empire. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy,‪[6]‬ physiology, pathology, pharmacology,‪[8]‬ and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic. Richard Walzer writes (Galen on Jews and Christians, pp. 9-10): "It is important that Galen [129 - c. 199] was intimately connected with the imperial court when Christian influence there was on the increase. He enjoyed the friendship of Marcus Aurelius, and was placed in charge of the health of the young Commodus while the emperor was away from Rome conducting the German war. . . But Galen, as is most probable, had in addition the opportunity of meeting individual Christians at court. . . It is, therefore, possible to connect his interest in Christian thought with the more favourable attitude to Christians which seems to have prevailed in Rome from a date shortly before AD 180."
Saints Cosmas and Damian (c. ad 287) Physicians.
Were reputed twin brothers, physicians, and early Christian martyrs. They practiced their profession in the seaport of Aegeae, then in the Roman province of Syria. Accepting no payment for their services led to them being named "Ανάργυροι" (Holy Unmercenaries); it has been said that, by this, they attracted many to the Christian faith.‪ ‬
Saint Basil the Great (ca. 329-379). Missionary.
Greek Father of Eastern communal monasticism; founded a very large hospital in Caesaria, Asia Minor (Turkey), said to be one of the wonders of the world.  Named a Doctor of the Church after his death.  Patron saint of hospital administrators. In addition to his work as a theologian, Basil was known for his care of the poor and underprivileged. Basil established guidelines for monastic life which focus on community life, liturgical prayer, and manual labour. Together with Pachomius he is remembered as a father of communal monasticism in Eastern Christianity. He is considered a saint by the traditions of both Eastern and Western Christianity.
The ancient HOSPITALLER ORDER OF SAINT LAZARUS OF JERUSALEM can trace its roots back to the 4th century when a hospice was established outside the walls of Jerusalem by Greek or Armenian monks under the rule of Saint Basil.  Its particular mission was the care and treatment of lepers and those suffering from skin diseases.
Olympias the Deaconess
Olympias, also known as Saint Olympias and sometimes known as Olympias the Younger‪[1]‬ to distinguish her from her aunt of the same name‪[2]‬ (Greek: Ὀλυμπιάς, sometime between 361 to 368-July 25, 408) was a Christian Roman noblewoman of Greek descent. fter her husband died and refusing many offers of marriage,‪‬ she dedicated her life to the church, serving as a deaconess. She would later become a friend of Saint John Chrysostom.
Her good works included building a hospital, an orphanage and even looking after Monks who had been led in exile from Nitria. All of this even led to John Chrysostom telling her that she had done almost too much. Her support for John Chrysostom led her to being exiled in 404, which resulted her in losing her house and living the rest of her life in exile at Nicomedia, where she would die on July 25, 408, after a long illness. Olympias is one of the 140 Colonnade saints which adorn Saint Peter's Square.
Nemesius (Fl-c. 390) Christian philosopher, and the author of a treatise De Natura Hominis ("On Human Nature").
A bishop of Emesa whose De Natura Hominis blended theology with Galenic medicine and is notable for its ideas concerning the brain. It also may have anticipated the discovery of the circulatory system. Nemesius was also a physiological theorist. He based much of his writing on previous work of Aristotle and Galen, and it has been speculated that he anticipated William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood. Other views included a five-theory hierarchy of Divine Providence. These theories are developed from an earlier Platonic theory. Nemesius was one of the earliest advocates of the idea that different cavities of the brain were responsible for different functions. His Doctrine of Ventricle Localisation of Mental Functioning is a reconciliation of Platonic doctrines on the soul with Christian philosophy and also emphasized Greek scientific interpretation and knowledge of the human body.
Saint Fabiola (Fl.-c. Died ca. 399).  Roman patrician class, Missionary.
Saint Fabiola was a physician and Roman matron of rank of the company of noble Roman women who, under the influence of the Church father St. Jerome, gave up all earthly pleasures and devoted themselves to the practice of Christian asceticism and to charitable work.‪ ‬Founded the first hospital in the west, where she personally attended the sick. Built a hospice in Porto for the area poor and sick pilgrims.
Saint Brigit of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland (Irish: c. 451–525) Healer.
One of Ireland's patron saints, along with Patrick and Columba. Irish hagiography makes her an early Irish Christian nun,‪‬ abbess, and founder of several monasteries of nuns, including that of Kildare in Ireland, which was famous and was revered. Among the earlier monastic women was Saint Brigid of Kildare daughter of an Ulster Prince and disciple of St. Patrick. She is said to have introduced female monasteries into Ireland as early as the fifth century and was known also as "the patroness of healing." There are references to her miracles, her healing of lepers and her attendance on the sick with her nuns.
Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus (480-ca. 585).
The Roman statesman and author Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator [surname, not rank] introduced the tradition of preserving and copying classical literature in Christian monasteries, and his writings provide information about the period of Ostrogothic rule of Italy.  He exerted great influence on the preservation of works of classical literature in Christian monasteries including the medical writings of Hippocrates and Galen from the 6th century through the Middle Ages.
Masona (Fl. 570)
Masona or Mausona‪[1]‬ (died circa 600/610) was the Bishop of Mérida and metropolitan of the province of Lusitania from about 570 (certainly by 573) until his death. He is famous for exercising de facto rule of the city of Mérida during his tenure as bishop and for founding the first confirmed hospital in Spain. Charity in the Eastern church was developed earlier than in Rome, and there may have been hospitals there, now forgotten. He entered the church young and served from an early period in the Basilica of Saint Eulalia at Mérida, which had been rebuilt in her honour by Bishop Fidelis about 560. Masona is said to have had such a close relationship with Eulalia that by his prayers and her intercession a plague ravishing all Lusitania was lifted.

Aëtius of Amida (fl. mid-5th century to mid-6th century) was a Byzantine Greek physician and medical writer,‪he became‬ physician to one of the emperors at Byzantium, very probably Justinian, (527-565)‬, particularly distinguished by the extent of his erudition.‪[3]‬ Historians are not agreed about his exact date. He is placed by some writers as early as the 4th century; but it is plain from his own work that he did not write till the very end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th, as he refers not only to Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria, who died 444, but also to Petrus archiater, who could be identified with the physician of Theodoric the Great,‪[5]‬ whom he defines a contemporary. He is himself quoted by Alexander of Tralles,‪[6]‬ who lived probably in the middle of the 6th century. He was probably a Christian,‪[7]‬ which may account perhaps for his being confounded with Aëtius of Antioch, a famous Arian who lived in the time of the Emperor Julian. He is amongst the earliest recorded Greek physicians of the Christian faith.‪ ‬

Yuhanna ibn Masawaih (circa 777–857)
Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in Latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was an Assyrian Nestorian Christian physician‪[1][2]‬ from the Academy of Gundishapur. According to The Canon of Medicine for Avicenna and 'Uyun al-Anba for the medieval Arabic historian Ibn Abi Usaybi'a, Masawaiyh's father was Assyrian and his mother was Slavic.‪ ‬Born in 777 CE as the son of a pharmacist and physician from Gundishapur, he came to Baghdad and studied under Jabril ibn Bukhtishu. He wrote mostly in Syriac and Arabic.
He became director of a hospital in Baghdad. He composed medical treatises on a number of topics, including ophthalmology, fevers, headache, melancholia, diatetics, the testing of physicians, and medical aphorisms. Masawayh became personal physician to four caliphs. He composed a considerable number of Arabic medical monographs, on topics including fevers, leprosy, melancholy, dietetics, eye diseases, and medical aphorisms. It was reported that Ibn Masawayh regularly held an assembly of some sort, where he consulted with patients and discussed subjects with pupils. Ibn Masawayh apparently attracted considerable audiences, having acquired a reputation for repartee.

Hunayn ibn Ishaq (c. 809 – 873) Physician, Scribe, Translator.

Assyrian Christian physician known for translations of Greek scientific works and as author of "Ten Treatises on Ophthalmology." He also wrote "How to Grasp Religion", which involved the apologetics for his faith.He and his students transmitted their Syriac and Arabic translations of many classical Greek texts throughout the Islāmic world, during the apex of the Islamic Abbasid Caliphate. Ḥunayn ibn Isḥaq was the most productive translator of Greek medical and scientific treatises in his day. He studied Greek and became known among the Arabs as the "Sheikh of the translators". He mastered four languages: Arabic, Syriac, Greek and Persian. His translations did not require corrections; Hunayn's method was widely followed by later translators. He was originally from southern Iraq but he spent his working life in Baghdad, the center of the great ninth-century Greek-into-Arabic/Syriac translation movement. His fame went far beyond his own community.

Abu Musa Isa ibn Usayyid (826-901)
Al-Sabi Thabit ibn Qurra al-Harrani had a student, Abu Musa Isa ibn Usayyid (late A.D. 800s), who was a Christian from Iraq. Ibn Usayyid asked various questions of his teacher Thabit and a manuscript exists of the answers given by Thabit, this manuscript being discussed in S Pines, Thabit Qurra's conception of number and theory of the mathematical infinite, in 1968 Actes du Onzième Congrès International d'Histoire des Sciences Sect. III : Histoire des Sciences Exactes (Astronomie, Mathématiques, Physique) (Wroclaw, 1963), 160-166.
Constantine the African (Constantinus Africanus) (died before 1098/1099, Monte Cassino) was a Berber Zirid era doctor of the eleventh century. The first part of his life was spent in North Africa and the rest in Italy. He first arrived in Italy in the coastal town of Salerno, where his work attracted attention from the local Lombard and Norman rulers. Constantine then became a Benedictine monk, living the last decades of his life at the abbey of Monte Cassino.‪
It was in Italy where Constantine compiled his vast opus, mostly composed of translations from Arabic sources. He translated into Latin books of the great masters of Arabic medicine: Razes Ali Ibn Massaouia Baghdad, Ibn Imran, Ibn Suleiman, and Ibn Al-Jazzar. These translations are housed today in libraries in Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, and England. They were used as textbooks from the Middle Ages to the seventeenth century.
Blessed Fra' Gerard (c. 1040 – September 3, 1120), variously surnamed Tum, Tune, Tenque or Thom, is accredited as the founder of the Knights Hospitaller which is currently divided into the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem and the Order of Malta, as well as numerous other groups who trace their descent and/or inspiration to the original Hospitaller's order.
The French historian of the Order of St. John, the Abbot of Vertut, mourns: "The Hospitallers lost the Blessed Gerard, the father of the poor and of the pilgrims; that virtuous man, having arrived at an exceeding old age, expired in the arms of his brethren, almost without any sickness, and fell, as we may say, like a fruit ripe for eternity."
Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179). Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, mystic, visionary, polymath and Germany's first female physician.
She conducted and published comprehensive studies of natural science and medicine. Hildegard wrote her two treatises on medicine and natural history, known in English as Book of Simple Medicine and Book of Composed Medicine, between 1151 and 1161. Hildegard was well known in her own century as "the female prophet" and is venerated as a Catholic saint. Through her studies and writings, twelfth-century Benedictine abbess who helped German scholars to emerge from the Dark Ages by presenting a revisioning of the cosmos and the interrelationship between man and his environment. "Viriditas", or Greenness, is the matrix for her songs, visions, drawings, and remarkably careful observations of the natural world. Hildegard saw 'Viriditas' penetrating every aspect of life, the very expression of Divine power on Earth. "The Word of God regulates the movements of the Sun, the Moon and the stars. The Word of God gives the light which shines from the heavenly bodies. He makes the wind blow, the rivers run and the rain fall. He makes trees burst into blossom, and the crops bring forth the harvest."
Trota of Salerno (Fl. 12th century)
Trota of Salerno (also spelled Trocta) was a medical practitioner and medical writer in the southern Italian coastal town of Salerno who lived sometime in the early or middle decades of the 12th century. In an age of rampant patriarchy and sexual repression, Trotula considered it her sacred duty to educate male physicians on the nature of the female body and how to care for it. Her fame spread as far away as France and England in the 12th and 13th centuries. Thereafter, aside from a distorted reflection of her work that lived on in the Trotula treatises, her work was forgotten until it was rediscovered in the late 20th century. Trotula is a name referring to a group of three texts on women's medicine, the Trotula, that were composed in the southern Italian port town of Salerno in the 12th century. The name derives from a historic female figure, Trota of Salerno, a physician and medical writer who was associated with one of the three texts. However, "Trotula" came to be understood as a real person in the Middle Ages and because the so-called Trotula texts circulated widely throughout medieval Europe, from Spain to Poland, and Sicily to Ireland, "Trotula" has historic importance in "her" own right.‪ ‬
Saint Francis of Assisi (Italian: San Francesco d'Assisi; born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone (1181/1182 – October 3, 1226)
An Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women's Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers, followed by the early members of the Order of Friars Minor, or the monastic lives of the Poor Clares. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history.‪ ‬
The problem of leprosy had grown increasingly grave since the introduction of the disease into Europe in the fifth and sixth centuries, and attempts to solve it by isolating its victims had had little or no effect. The special genius of St. Francis was shown in his way of attacking this problem. He did not isolate himself with the lepers, nor allow his followers to do so, though one and all were required to live among them. They went back and forth in the world as if they had been living anywhere else, and by thus bringing leprosy (much of which was really tuberculosis and syphilis) out into the open, as it were, St. Francis brought the responsibility home to the entire community, where it belonged, and a beginning was made toward improved social conditions and preventive sanitary measures. His method was similar to that used in the modern campaign against tuberculosis.
Saint Clare of Assisi (July 16, 1194 – August 11, 1253). Missionary, Healer, Nurse.
Chiara Offreduccio, is an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. She founded the Order of Poor Ladies, a monastic religious order for women in the Franciscan tradition, and wrote their Rule of Life—the first monastic rule known to have been written by a woman. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honor as the Order of Saint Clare, commonly referred to today as the Poor Clares. The Franciscan orders were useful and practical during two full centuries. Their nursing may have been very elementary, but it was effective, and their sincerity in carrying out their aim of bringing back the simple, neighborly kindness of the early church in place of the formal stereotyped charity of the later monastic orders, had a great influence on their age.
Elizabeth of Hungary (German: July 1207 – 17 November 1231)‪ ‬was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness. Elizabeth was married at the age of 14, and widowed at 20. After her husband's death she sent her children away and regained her dowry, using the money to build a hospital where she herself served the sick. She became a symbol of Christian charity after her death at the age of 24 and was quickly canonized. Legends of extreme piety, asceticism, and austerity of life attend many of these saints, and they were freely credited with miraculous powers.
John of Toledo (died 1275)
An English Cistercian abbot and Cardinal. Wrote several works of which De regimine sanitatis was the most popular, being full of sensible advice. Salerno was the first modern medical school, Almum et Hippocraticum Medicorum Collegium, founded in the 9th century in southern Italy, formally organized in the 10th century and reached its peak at the end of the 12th century and profoundly influenced physicians of the times. Created cardinal in 1244 by Pope Innocent IV, he became bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina in 1262.‪[1]‬ He took part in the legendary Papal election of 1268 to 1271 at Viterbo and was Dean of the College of Cardinals in January 1273.
Theodoric de Lucca / Teodorico Borgognoni (1205-1298)
Theodoric was a Dominican friar and University-trained both as a surgeon and a physician, a circumstance that was very unusual at the time (Zimmerman & Veith, 1961). Despite working as a surgeon, he eventually became Bishop of Cervia in 1262. In 1267 he completed his Chirurgia or surgical textbook, which Theodoric stated was based on the teachings of [his father] Hugh. Theodoric's treatise contains a range of information such as different types of surgical procedures, management of fractures and dislocations, the best methods of extracting arrows and Hugh's principles of wound management. Both Hugh and Theodoric condemned the doctrine of 'laudable pus'. Theodoric considered that it hindered nature and prolonged healing (Zimmerman & Veith, 1961). Edwards (1976) described Theodoric as a medieval antiseptic surgeon who was unfairly denigrated by some of his colleagues and his successors.  The School of Surgery at Bologna University was founded around the end of the 12th Century by Theodoric and his father, Hugh of Lucca (1160-1257).
Saint Albertus Magnus (ca. 1193-1280)
The German philosopher and naturalist St. Albertus Magnus, also known as Albert the Great, was a dominant figure in the evolution of Christian scholastic thought and a precursor of modern science.  The patron saint of natural scientists and known in his lifetime as "The Great Doctor," Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great) was one of the most important scientific polymaths of the Middle Ages. In the natural sciences he is known for his clear, accurate observations and his dispelling of erroneous beliefs through careful investigation.
Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8–9, 1324) Italian Merchant, Explorer.
A merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo, c. 1300), a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China. He had stimulated European trade with the Orient, especially trade in cardamom, sage, cinnamon and nutmeg and their use by pharmacists. By the middle of the 18th century, Christendom knew about 100 essential oils, although their individual properties remained largely vague.
Guy de Chauliac (French: Guido or Guigo de Cauliaco, c. 1300 – 25 July 1368), was a French physician and surgeon who wrote a lengthy and influential treatise on surgery in Latin, titled Chirurgia Magna. It was translated into many other languages (including Middle English) and widely read by physicians in late medieval Europe. When the Black Death arrived in Avignon in 1348, physicians fled the city, However, Chauliac stayed on, treating plague patients and documenting symptoms meticulously. He claimed to have been himself infected and survived the disease. Through his observations, Chauliac distinguished between the two forms of the disease, the Bubonic Plague and the Pneumonic Plague. As a precautionary measure, he advised Pope Clement to keep a fire burning continuously in his chamber and to keep visitors out.‪ ‬Three other works were written by Chauliac: Practica astrolabii (De astronomia), an essay on astrology; De ruptura, which describes different types of hernias; and De subtilianti diaeta, describing treatments for cataracts.

William of Ockham (c.1285–c.1350)

He was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher. He is a major figure of medieval thought and was at the center of the major intellectual and political controversies of his time. Commonly known for Occam's razor, the scientific/methodological principle of parsimony that contributed to theory choice in the scientific method, medical evaluation, he also produced significant works on logic, physics, and theology.

Jean de Roquetaillade (De Rupescissa) (date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1366) French Franciscan alchemist.
After studying philosophy for five years at Toulouse, he entered the Franciscan monastery at Aurillac, where he continued his studies for five years longer. His experiments in distillation led to the discovery of what he termed aqua vitæ, or usually quinta essentia, and commended as a panacea for all disease. His work as an alchemist forms the subject-matter of De consideratione quintæ essentiæ (Basle, 1561) and De extractione quintæ essentiæ; likewise Libellus de conficiendo vero lapide philosophico ad sublevandam inopiam papæ et cleri in tempore tribulationis (Strasburg, 1659).
His prophecies and violent denunciation of ecclesiastical abuses brought him into disfavour with his superiors, resulting in his imprisonment in the local franciscan convents. During a transfer from one convent to another, he was able to reach Avignon and present an appeal before Pope Clement VI in 1349. While there he wrote in 1349 his Visiones seu revelationes, and in 1356 Vade Mecum in tribulatione‪‬ and Liber Ostensor. His other works include commentaries on the Oraculum Cyrilli, the recently discovered Sexdequiloquium and many other lost treatises and commentaries on various prophecies. John of Rupescissa's works in alchemy and the beginnings of medical chemistry is recognized for the bounds in alchemy. His works in making the philosopher's stone, also known as the fifth essence, was what made him well known. Distillation techniques were mostly used and it was said that by reaching a substance's purest form the person would find the fifth essence, and this is where medicine is obtained. Remedies were able to be made more potently because there was now a way to remove non-essential materials, what would become a common homeopathic axiom.
Zara Panaskerteli-Tsitsishvili (15th century AD) Georgian prince, politician, and man of letters.
The greatest Georgian doctor and philosopher, Zara Panaskerteli-Tsitsishvili (15th century AD) is the first lay person, holding an especial place in the history of Georgian medicine. His book Samkurnalo Tsigni (The Book of Treatment) is a real masterpiece in this field. The last big work in medicine of old Georgia was ladigar Daudi written by David Batonishvili (Bagrationi) (16th century AD). There are more than 500 medical manuscripts in Georgian and foreign libraries.

Johannes Regiomontanus (1436-1476) German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, translator, instrument maker and Catholic bishop.
The German astronomer and mathematician Regiomontanus constructed the first European observatory and established trigonometry as a separate area of study in mathematics. Regiomontanus was the pen name of Johann Müller, responsible for what some call the "rebirth of trigonometry" during the century following his death. Regiomontanus designed his own astrological house system in the 15th century, which became one of the most popular systems in Europe. As a young man he cast horoscopes for important patrons, and the tables that he created while living in Hungary, his Tabulae directionum, were designed for astrology, including finding astrological houses.‪ ‬On entering the employ of King Mathias Huniades Corvinus of Hungary in 1467, he was called to aid the King whose advisers predicted and feared his imminent death. Using his astrological knowledge, Regio attributed his condition to a mild heart weakness influenced by a recent eclipse. On his recovery, the King rewarded his astrologer handsomely.

Regiomontanus endeavored to update and reform the works of the ancients, writing an abridgement of Ptolemy's Great Treatise.
He also constructed astrolabes, composed works on trigonometry and the armillary sphere, published almanacs and ephemerides, and pursued reform of the Julian calendar. Christopher Columbus carried a copy of his Ephemerides on his fourth New World voyage. He used it to predict the lunar eclipse of February 29, 1504, and duly impress the natives. Regiomontanus "concentrated his efforts on mathematical astronomy because he felt that astrology could not be placed on a sound footing until the celestial motions could be modelled accurately."

Tomé Pires (c. 1468-c. 1540).  Portuguese pharmacologist, geographer, apothecary, merchant.  Catholic, from a converted Jewish family.
The apothecary of Prince Afonso (1475-1491 AD) and author of Suma Oriental (Eastern Account), the earliest extensive account of the East written by a Portuguese. Pires's letter to the King of Portugal on drugs of the orient was almost the beginning of European knowledge of them.  His manuscript Suma Oriental, on the geography, ethnography and commerce of the orient, unknown in his own time, portrays European knowledge of the East at the beginning of the 16th century.
Gian Giacomo Bartolotti (c. 1471-c.1530).  Italian physician and educator.  Catholic.
Bartolotti translated Cebe's Table (Pinax) in 1498, and later published his Opusculum de antiquitate medicinae, a brief treatise on the history of ancient medicine. In 1498 he was assigned to teach a course at the University of Ferrara, but he is not listed with the regular appointment.  Toward the close of the century he was practicing medicine, and in the early 16th century he was doing so at Venice.
Jean Ruel (1474-1537).  French physician, pharmacologist, botanist.  Catholic.
Although Ruel's works were compilations of the works of earlier authors, they represented a first attempt at popularizing botany. In 1516 he published a translation of Dioscorides' De materia medica. De medicina veterina (1530) was a Latin compilation of everything written in Greek on veterinary medicine. His botanical work, De natura stirpium presented an alphabetical ordering of plants; provided information on odors and tastes of plants; and separated each topic (i.e. leaves, bark, etc.) into its own chapter.
Girolamo Fracastoro / Hieronymus Fracastorius (1478-1553).  Italian physician, poet, astronomer, geologist, logician.
He was born in Verona, where he practiced after studying at Padua. He studied epidemic diseases and attributed their spread to tiny particles, or spores, that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact or even without contact over long distances. The British medical journal Lancet called Girolamo Fracastoro "the physician who did most to spread knowledge of the origin, clinical details and available treatments of [the sexually-transmitted disease syphilis] throughout a troubled Europe." His poem, Syphilis sive morbus gallicus, 1530, gave name to the disease. Girolamo Fracastoro discovered that rabies was a fatal disease affecting humans as well as animals, calling it "an incurable wound".  A true Renaissance man, Fracastoro excelled in the arts and sciences and engaged in a lifelong study of literature, music, geography, geology, philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy, as well as medicine.
Julius Caesar Scaliger / Bordon / Bordonius (1484-1558). Italian physician, pharmacologist, botanist, natural philosopher and scholar.
He claimed descent from della Scala family and changed name to Scaliger. Practiced medicine in Agen, France (from 1524); naturalized (1528). Established fame with orations against Erasmus's Ciceronianus (1531, 1536). Writings, all in Latin, included verse; a Latin grammar on scientificprinciples De causis linguae latinae (1540); De plantis (1556); and Poetice (1561), a treatise on poetics which helped foster Classicism. Best known for his philosophical and scientific writings, including commentaries on works of Aristotle, Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and esp. his Exercitationes exotericae de subtilitate (1557) on Cardano's De subtilitate. His son (1540-1609) was one of the most renowned scholars of his time; became a Protestant (1562); professor, Geneva (1572-74), Leiden (from 1593). Helaid down and applied in his editions of Catalecta, of Festus, Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius, rules of criticism and of textual emendation that laid the foundation for modern textual criticism. His edition of Manilius (1579) and his Opus de emendatione temporum (1583) revolutionized accepted ideas on ancient chronology and laid the foundation of the modern study of the subject; in his Thesaurus temporum (1606) he collected, often restoring defective texts, all available extant chronological writings of classic Greek and Latin; established numismatics as a tool of historical research.
He presented editions of three ancient treatises in which he tried to effect a new and more consistent classification of plants. He felt it was necessary to submit everything to examination and not to embrace ancient authorities with 'servile adulation'.
During his tour in the army he studied medicine and collected medicinal herbs in Northern Italy.
Niccolo Massa (1485-1569).  Italian anatomist, physician.  Catholic.
Massa undertook a program of dissection and investigation of the human body at least from 1526 to 1533, producing a treatise entitled Liber introductorius anatomiae (Venice, 1536), which remained the best brief textbook on the subject for a generation. He also wrote on pestilential fevers, on syphilis, and on medicine in general.
Member: Medical College.  He entered the Venetian College of Physicians in 1521.

Otto Brunfels (c. 1489-1534).  German botanist, physician, pharmacologist.  Catholic, then Lutheran.

Brunfels compiled practical pharmacological texts to be used by physicians and apothecaries, including the city ordinance for apothecaries in Bern. He translated older works and wrote on herbal pharmacology.

Luca Ghini (c. 1490-1556).  Italian botanist, pharmacologist, physician, natural historian, instrument-maker.  Catholic.
The pioneer in the creation of the first botanical gardens (in Pisa in 1543 and, after a second was created in Padua, in Florence in 1545) in the 16th century and in the collection of the earliest herbaria (both of which explicitly served the ends of pharmacology), Ghini exerted his influence primarily through correspondence and teaching. His only published works--and those long after his death--were minor medical tracts. Much more important is the letter to Mattioli, published as I placiti di Luca Ghini intorno a piante descritte nei commentarii al Dioscoride di P.A.Mattioli. Ghini also collected in natural history in general--minerals and animals.
He was actively involved in the creation of botanical gardens at Pisa and at Florence. He introduced, probably for the first time, the herbarium or hortus siccus, the technique of pressing and drying plants. Although there is obvious ambiguity, the technique of drying seems essentially identical to the creation of a new instrument.
Diego Álvarez Chanca (year of birth and death unknown)
A physician and companion of Christopher Columbus.‪ ‬Chanca was a physician-in-ordinary to Ferdinand and Isabella, which is how he was introduced to Columbus. He was appointed by the Crown to accompany Columbus' second expedition to America in 1493. Shortly after landing on Hispaniola, Columbus suffered from an attack of malarial fever, which Chanca successfully treated. Several other members of the crew were also treated for malaria during this period.
Chanca's opinion was also sought when Columbus was selecting a site for his first settlement, Isabella. While there, Chanca wrote a letter to the municipal council of his native city, which was the first document describing the flora, the fauna, the ethnology, and the ethnography of America.
After his return to Spain in February 1494, he published in 1506 a medical treatise entitled Para curar el mal de Costado (The Treatment of Pleurisy), and in 1514, he published a work in Latin criticizing a book entitled De conservanda juventute et retardanda senectute, the work of Amaldo de Villanova, a brother-physician. He brought the first chili peppers to Spain and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. The spread of chili peppers to Asia was most likely a natural consequence of its introduction to Portuguese traders.
Paracelsus / Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, (11 November or 17 December 1493 – 24 September 1541) Swiss German Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist.
He founded the discipline of toxicology. He is also known as a revolutionary for insisting upon using observations of nature, rather than looking to ancient texts, in open and radical defiance of medical practice of his day. He is also credited for giving zinc its name, calling it zincum.‪ ‬ Modern psychology often also credits him for being the first to note that some diseases are rooted in psychological conditions.‪ ‬
His personality was stubborn and independent. He grew progressively more frustrated and bitter as he became more embattled as a reformer.‪ ‬
Jean François Fernel (ca. 1497-1558) Physician.
The French physician Jean François Fernel reformed, systematized, and reorganized Renaissance medicine, popularizing the terms "physiology" and "pathology."  Known for his intellectual versatility and depth of knowledge, Fernel became a physician only after spending much of his life studying philosophy, astronomy, and mathematics. He is widely regarded as one of the leading figures of 16th century science and medicine, and is remembered especially for his work in the area of physiology and for dispelling some of the period's reliance on astrology and magic in matters of health.
Bartolomeo Eustachi / Eustachius (c. 1500-1513).  Italian anatomist, physician.  Catholic.
In 1562 and 1563 Eustachi produced a remarkable series of treatises on the kidney, the auditory organ (De auditus organis), the venous system, and the teeth. These were published in Opuscula anatomica (1564). The treatise on the kidney was the first work specifically dedicated to that organ. The teatise on the auditory organ provided a correct account of the tuba auditiva that is still referred to eponymously by Eustachi's name. He was also the first who made a study of the teeth in any considerable detail. In 1552 Eustachi, with the help of Pier Matteo Pini, prepared a series of 47 anatomical plates, which (although they were published only in 1714, long after his death) alone assured him a distinguished position in the history of anatomy. He placed anatomy in the service of medicine; much of it was pathological anatomy.
Member: Medical College of Rome. On his (assumed) 400th birthday in 1913 a memorial was erected in his honour at the Sapienza in Rome.
Associated eponyms: Eustachian catheter, A catheter devised by Jean Marie Gaspard Itard, French physician, 1774-1838; Eustachian cushion, A swelling at the entrance of the auditory tube into the naso-pharynx; Eustachian tube, This 3-4 cm tubular structure connecting the nose with the middle ear permits communication between the inner ear and the external atmosphere so that equal pressure is maintained on either side of the eardrum; Eustachian valve, Obsolete term for the Valvula venae cavae inferiore; Eustachianography,  
Pietro Andrea Gregorio Mattioli / Pierandrea Mattiolo (1501-1577).  Italian-born physician, chemist, botanist, pharmacologist, geographer.  Catholic.
In 1544 Mattioli published Di Pedacio Dioscoride anazarbeo libri cinque, which through revisions and expansions, made him famous. It is a practical scientific treatise intended for daily use by physicians, herbalists, and others. Cappelletti insists that the commentary on Dioscorides is also the work of a dedicated student of botany. Before this he had published De morbi gallici curandi ratione, dialogus (Bologna, 1530), a traditional examination of the origins and treatment of syphilis (in which he was either the first or one of the first to recommend mercury as a cure), and later Epistola de bulbocastaneo (Prague, 1558), another work in botany. He published as well a series of writings on various medical subjects.  In 1558 he translated Ptolemy's Geography into Italian.
During his stay in Trentino (1528-1539), he became an intimate friend, adviser, and physician to Cardinal Clesio, bishop of Trento, who developed a great esteem for him. Mattioli published an account, in poetry, of the Cardinal's palace, Il magno palazzo.  He was royal physician first at the court of Ferdinand I and then at that of Maximilian II. Ferdinand, who was an avid collector, while Archduke of Tyrol, influenced the publication of the commentary on Dioscorides. He employed illustrators to make the engravings, and later he arranged to have the work translated into Czech. Mattioli wrote a short treatise on the method of distillation.
Mattioli was a friend of Ghini (with whom he exchanged plants) and of Gesner.  Stannard speaks of an extensive correspondence with other naturalists. His letters to Aldrovandi were published by Fantuzzi and Raimondi.  He also carried on acrimonious disputes with Anguillara and Lusitanus.
Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cinque (1544) served as one of the bases for the development of modern botany.
David Edwardes [Edgaurdus] (c. 1502-1542).  English physician, anatomist.
Edwardes produced a small book of two treatises (London, 1532), the first entitled De indiciis et praecognitionibus, dealing with uroscopy and medical prognostication; the second, In anatomicen introductio luculenta et brevis, devoted to anatomy, the first work specifically on anatomy published in England. The reference to his dissection of a human body in 1531 in the latter treatise is the first record of a human dissection in England.
Charles [Carolus Stephanus] Estienne (c. 1505-1564).  French anatomist, botanist, physician.
Estienne published Anatomia, a short treatise, in 1536, and his main anatomical work, De dissectione, in Latin in 1545, and in French in 1546. His many original observations included the morphology and physiological significance of the "feeding holes" of bones, the cartaliginous meniscus of the temporomandibular joint, the valvulae in the hepatic veins, and the scrotal septum.
Among his several treatises on gardening and the names of plants and birds, De re hortensi libellus (1535) and Seminarium (1536) were favorably received and republished. He published other works on botany.  He published a book on medicine, derivative from Galen, in 1550.  As a publisher, he printed mostly dictionaries, grammars, and classical literature, but only one real scientific book, by Pierre Belon.
Joannes Guinter (c. 1505-1574).  German anatomist, physician.  Catholic, then Lutheran. 
In1538, due to the pressure of religous orthodoxy he left France for Germany. Guinter wrote several works on medicine, but especially he was the translator of Galen (and some other lesser ones) into Latin.  He dedicated the following works: his translations of three books of Galen (1528) to the Count of Beaulieu; a book on medicine in 1528 to the Abbé de Saint-Marc; a translation of Galen (1530) to Francis I;  a translation of Galen (1533) to Poblation, physician to the Queen and professor of mathematics (sic) at the Collège royale; a translation of Galen (1534) to the Spanish aristocrat Rodrigue Manrique; a medical book (1549) to Archbishop Cranmer; a translation of Alexander de Tralles to the Landgrave William of Hesse.
Nicolas Bautista Monardes (1508-1588).  Spanish physician, pharmacologist, botanist, natural historian, mineralogist.
Monardes is the best known Spanish physician from the 16th century. He was translated into Latin, English, Italian, French, German, and Dutch. Through him the materia medica from the new world first began to be known in Europe. Because of his tests on animals, he is considered as one of the founders of experimental pharmacology.  He gave the first scientific description of several species of plants. In 1577 an herbal of an entirely new type was translated from the Spanish into English. It was written by Nicholas Monardes, and was entitled, "Joyfull Newes Out Of The Newe Founde Worlde". This book catalogued and described medicinal plants from the Americas. Then, in 1629 and 1640 a pair of books were published that changed the entire face of herb lore. They are often considered to be the greatest English books on herbs and plants ever published. They were written by John Parkinson, and are entitled respectively, "Paradisi I Sole Paradisus Terrestris" and "Theatrum Botanicum: The Theatre of Plants". More than 3,000 plants are described in this volume, and unlike their predecessors, these books combine history, horticulture, botany, and pharmacy all in one piece. Parkinson is also the first herbal author to seriously attempt botanical classification into tribes or families of plants, and into classes, in respect to the Chain of Being.
He also described some animals, such as the armadillo, living specimens of which he did see. So also some of the minerals of America.  He wrote a book on iron that was famous; it included information of the working of iron and was not confined solely to its pharmacological uses.
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto Conesa), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553). Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation, as discussed in Christianismi Restitutio (1533). He was a polymath versed in many sciences: mathematics, astronomy and meteorology, geography, human anatomy, medicine and pharmacology, as well as jurisprudence, translation, poetry and the scholarly study of the Bible in its original languages. He is renowned in the history of several of these fields, particularly medicine and theology. He participated in the Protestant Reformation, and later developed a nontrinitarian Christology. Condemned by Catholics and Protestants alike, he was arrested in Geneva and burnt at the stake as a heretic by order of the city's Protestant governing council. Sebastian Castellio and countless others denounced this execution and became harsh critics of Calvin because of the whole affair. Servetus contributed enormously to the liberation of medicine from Church dogma which led to the medical discoveries of the renaissance.
Guido [Vidus, Vidius] Guidi  (1509-1569).  Italian-born anatomist, surgeon, physician.
Guidi carried out important anatomical investigations at Pisa after 1548, recorded in a manuscript, Anatomia, which was composed around 1560. His name is attached to the canalis vidianus of the sphenoid bone and to the nerve that traverses this canal. He also made original studies of the mechanism of articulation in the human body resulting from its vertical position in relation to the mechanism of quadruped articulations.
Guidi was the author of a book on surgery that he translated from the Greek (of Hippocrates, Galen, and Oribasius--from a manuscript that Cardinal Ridolfi furnished to him) and to which he added a commentary of his own. Guidi's Ars medicalis, in three volumes, was essentially complete at the time of Guidi's death; it was published finally in 1596.

Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia (c. 1510-1580).  Italian physician, anatomist.

Ingassia is best known for anatomical studies, especially of the bones, which date from the period in Naples. They show his continuing debt to Vesalius.  Ingrassia published on the plague.  He is called the founder of legal medicine, which in his case included issues such as the validity of testimony taken under torture. He also contributed to veterinary medicine.

William Turner (1510-1568). English clergyman, physician, and "Father of English Botany".
Published botanical essay Libellus de re herbaria (1538); became intimate of Konrad Gesner in Zurich, collected plants in Rhine country, and wrote his Newe Herball, first essay on scientific botany in England (pub. 1551). Dean of Wells (1550-53); restored (1560) after living abroad through reign of Mary. A New Book of Spiritual Physick was published in 1555. In 1562, Turner published the second part of his Herbal, dedicated to Sir Thomas Wentworth, son of the patron who had enabled him to go to Cambridge. This book was published by Arnold Birckman of Cologne, and included in the same binding Turner's treatise on baths. The third and last part of Turner's Herbal was published in 1568, in a volume that also contained revised editions of the first and second parts. This was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. A New Boke on the Natures and Properties of all Wines, also published in 1568, had pharmacological intent behind it, as also the included Treatise of Triacle.

Ambroise Paré (1510-1590). French surgeon. father of modern surgery.

Served as army surgeon and physician to Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III; introduced use of ligature of arteries instead of cauterization in treatment of wounds. Author of works on anatomy, surgery, treatment of wounds, plague, generation, obstetrics, and monsters.
A Catholic throughout his life. On account of his humanitarian activity he was held in special regard among soldiers. His motto, as inscribed above his chair in the Collège de St-Cosme, read: "Je le pansay et Dieu le guarist" ("I treated him, but God healed him"). A monument was erected to him at Laval.

John Caius / John Keys / John Kees (1510-1573). 
English physician and humanist. Caius (the Latin form of his name that he adopted, which has at least 10 alternative spellings) is best known for his 1552 book A Boke or Counseill against the Disease commonly called the Sweate, or Sweatyng Sicknesse, considered one of the first original descriptions of an epidemic. He was also noteworthy as a physician to three English monarchs, King Edward VI, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, and a founder of Gonville and Caius College (1557, master (1559-73) at Cambridge, England's first school for formal medical education. Caius was a notable man of letters, translating and lecturing and publishing on subjects ranging from British dogs to philosophy, to the origins of universities. Educated at Gonville Hall, Cambridge. Studied medicine under Vesalius at Padua; lecturer on anatomy, London.
Jozef Struss (1510-c. 1568).  Polish physician.
Struss's main work is Sphygmicae artis, (1555, the work of twenty years) an accurate clinicophysiological study of the pulse and its alterations. It suggested the pulse as a reliable sources of clinical data and of diagnostic and prognostic information.  About 1538 he entered the court of Andrei Gorka, then the governor of Greater Poland as his personal physician.  1539, personal physician to Princess Isabela, daughter of Sigismond I, the King. Isabela was engaged to the King of Hungary, Jan Zapolya.  Struss was appointed administrator of a Hungarian province.  With Gorka Struss was sent to the court of Suleiman I. When he returned to Poznan in 1541 he remained personal physician to Gorka and advisor in his political caareer. Struss amassed large property in the region of Poznan through his association with Gorka.  He established a successful practice and became personal physician to King Sigismund Augustus in 1559.
Jacques Dalechamps (1513-1588).  French botanist, physician, surgeon.
Dalechamps's most important scientific work is the Historia generalis plantarum (1586-1687), the most complete botanical complilation of its time and the first to describe much of the flora peculiar to the region around Lyons. His other more or less original work is the Chirugie franciose (1570). Much of his effort was directed toward editing and translating earlier scientific and medical writings.
Ippolito Salviani (1514-1572).  Italian physician, zoologist.  Catholic.
Salviani published one medical work, De crisibus ad Galeni censuram (1556). He is better known for his monumental work on ichthyology, Aquatilium animalium historiae, published some time between 1554 and 1558. It describes the fish of the Mediterranean.  He was personal physician to Pope Julius III, Pope Paul IV, and Cardinal Cervini, who was Pope Marcellus II for a month before he died.
From 1551 until at least 1568 he was professor of practical medicine at the Sapienza.  In 1565 he was made principal physician of the medical college of Rome.  In 1564 Salviani was named conservatore (registrar) of Rome, an administrative position concerned with the preservation of antiquities.

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564).  Belgian anatomist and physician.
The first to dissect the human body and the founder of modern anatomy. His major work, De humani corporis fabrica(1543), is a milestone in scientific progress, which repudiated Galenic tradition. In Fabrica he wrote, "By not first explaining the bones, anatomists ... deter [the student] from a worthy examination of the works of God."  The dissections (then illegal) enabled him to discover that Galen's system of medicine was based on fundamental anatomical errors. He disproved that men had a rib less than women - a belief that had been widely held until then.  He also believed, contrary to Aristotle's theory of the heart being the centre of the mind and emotion, that the brain and the nervous system are the centre.  Between 1539 and 1542 Vesalius prepared his masterpiece, a book that employed talented artists to provide the anatomical illustrations.Vesalius's De humani corporis fabrica/On the Structure of the Human Body 1543, together with the main work of astronomer Copernicus, published in the same year, marked the dawn of modern science. He was made physician to Emperor Charles V (1543) and a count (1556); and later became physician to Philip II in Madrid (1559). On his way back from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Vesalius died in a shipwreck off Greece.

Andreas Vesalius in the 16th century carried out the most extensive anatomical investigations up to his time. His hands-on direct observation was a huge break with medieval practice, and considered little short of heresy. He was attacked for his disagreement with orthodox ideas derived from Galen's studies of human anatomy. As a young man, around 1536, he had had a dispute with the theologians of Louvain over the physical location of the soul. About the same time, while in a dispute over blood-letting, Vesalius rejected the infallibility of Galen, and was described as the "Luther of the physicians" ie the chief-heretic of the physicians.

Giovanni Battista Canano (1515-1579).  Italian anatomist, surgeon, instrument-inventor.  Catholic.
Canano's only published work was Musculorum humani corporis picturata dissectio, c. 1543, a small book but of outstanding importance for its originality. Based exclusively on direct observation of structures of the human body and of living animals, the Picturata dissectio contained the first anatomical drawings of the lumbricales and of the interossei of the hand, and the first description and drawing of the short palmar muscle and of the oblique head of the adductor pollicis, which Vesalius did not observe and which was unknown to Galen.
Another important contribution by Canano was the observation of the valves of the deep veins, and the assertion that they serve to prevent the reflux of the blood.  His book on muscles was intended as the first volume of a major work on the whole of anatomy, but Vesalius' De fabrica forestalled him.
Canano invented instruments for certain surgeries. He received several visits from Andreas Vesalius in his home in 1540, and when he met Vesalius again in 1544 he told him about his observation of the valves of deep veins. He was Prior of the Medical College of Ferrara.
Matteo Realdo Colombo (c. 1516-1559). 
Realdo Colombo was one of the first anatomists in the Western world to describe pulmonary circulation, observing that blood travels between the right and left ventricles of the heart by way of the lungs. Previously, it was believed that blood traveled through a hidden passage (or passages) connecting the ventricles.  Although two other Europeans wrote about this phenomenon around the same time, it was Colombo's book, The 15 Books Written Concerning Anatomy, that directly influenced seventeenth-century anatomist William Harvey's concept of the heart as a pump circulating blood throughout the body.
Konrad Gesner (1516-1565). Swiss physician and naturalist.
Practiced medicine in Zurich (from 1541), city physician (1554). Provided checklist of 1800 European authors in Bibliotheca universalis (1545), first bibliography of its kind; surveyed world knowledge in Pandectarumsive partitionum universalium (1548). His compendium of recorded knowledge of animal life, Historiae animalium (1551-87), considered basis of modern zoology. Also one of first to write about mountaineering.
Pierre Belon (1517–1564) French explorer, naturalist, writer and diplomat.
Like many others of the Renaissance period, he studied and wrote on a range of topics including ichthyology, ornithology, botany, comparative anatomy, architecture and Egyptology. He is sometimes known as Pierre Belon du Mans, or, in the Latin in which his works appeared, as Petrus Bellonius Cenomanus. Ivan Pavlov called him the "prophet of comparative anatomy". In 1543, he visited Constantinople where, after making enquiries, he encountered then 18 types of different products marketed as Lemnian Earth and he was concerned about possible counterfeits. He then made a special journey to Lemnos, where he continued his investigation, and tried to find the source of the clay. He discovered that it was extracted only once a year under the supervision of Christian monks and Turkish officials. Up until 1848, lemnian clay was listed in an important pharmacopeia.
Leonardo Botallo (c. 1519 / 1587 or 1588).  Italian-born anatomist, physician, surgeon.  Catholic.
His name is associated with Botallo's duct and Botallo's foramen. Through his observation, he discovered or independently rediscovered that the blood's passage from the right to the left side of the heart in the fetus was by way of the foramen ovale cordis (Botallo's foramen). His discovery was published in De catarrho commentarius (Paris,1564). He also observed the arterial duct from the pulmonary artery to the aorta that also carries his name. Note that he was not the original discoverer of either of these features; he does appear to have been an independent discoverer of them. He also published other works in anatomy and medicine. Botallo was the major advocate who effectively introduced blood letting as a medical treatment into France. He published one of the pioneering works on the treatment of gunshot wounds, as well as other works on surgical practice.  He appears to have developed an instrument for trapanning the cranium.
Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605). Italian naturalist and physician.
An Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bologna's botanical garden, one of the first in Europe. Carolus Linnaeus and the comte de Buffon reckoned him the father of natural history studies. He is usually referred to, especially in older literature, as Aldrovandus; his name in Italian is equally given as Aldroandi. He taught at Bologna (1553-1605); director of botanical garden established (1568) at his instigation by senate of Bologna; introduced systematic study of natural history; author of beautifully illustrated volumes on ornithology, entomology, ichthyology, etc., and of Antidotarii bononiensis epitome (1574), official pharmacopoeia.
Gabriele Falloppio / Falloppia / in Latin, Gabriel Fallopius
(1523-1562). Italian anatomist, academic, surgeon and author. One of the founders of the study of human anatomy (the science dealing with the structure of animals and plants).  With Andreas Vesalius and Bartolemeo Eustachio, Falloppio is considered one of the three heroes of anatomy.  After dissecting a body in 1545, he earned the right to practice medicine in Modena as a surgeon.  Professor of surgery and anatomy at Pisa (1548-51) and Padua (1551-62). Discovered function of oviducts (Fallopian tubes); described other anatomical structures, including chorda tympani, sphenoid and ethmoid bones, and opening of oviducts into abdominal cavity; named the vagina, placenta, clitoris, palate, and cochlea; joined Vesalius in assault on Galen's principles; published Observationes anatomicae (1561).
Fallopius, who was born in Modena, Italy, became professor at Pisa in 1548, and at Padua in 1551, but died at the age of forty. He studied the general anatomy of the bones; described the internal ear better than previous anatomists, especially the tympanum and its osseous ring, the two fenestrae and their communication with the vestibule and cochlea; and gave the first good account of the stylo-mastoid hole and canal, of the ethmoid bone and cells, and of the lacrimal passages. In myology he rectified several mistakes of Vesalius. He also devoted attention to the reproductive organs in both sexes, and discovered the utero-peritoneal canal which still bears his name.
Associated eponyms:  Bell's paralysis, Peripheral, usually unilateral, idiopathic paralysis of facial muscles; Fallopian canal, The facial canal. The facial nerve passes through this canal in the temporal bone; Fallopian ligament, A fibrous band forming the thickened lower border of the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle between the anterosuperior spine of the ilium and the pubic tubercle; Fallopian pregnancy, Tubal pregnancy; Fallopian tube, One of the tubes or ducts leading on either side from the upper or outer extremity of the ovary to the fundus of the uterus; Fallotomy, Division of the fallopian tubes.
Thomas Erastus [Lieber] (1524-1583).  Swiss-born physician and natural philosopher.  Calvinist.
In 1540 Erastus was studying theology at Basel. The plague of 1544 drove him to Bologna and thence to Padua as student of philosophy and medicine. In 1553 he became physicjan to the count of Henneberg, Saxe-Meiningen, and in 1558 held the same post with the elector-palatine, Otto Heinrich, being at the same time professor of medicine at Heidelberg. His patrons successor, Frederick III, made him (1559) a privy councillor and member of the church consistory. He published several pieces bearing on medicine, astrology and alchemy, and attacking the system of Paracelsus. His name is permanently associated with a posthumous publication, written in 1568.
Arcangelo Piccolomini (c. 1525-1586).  Italian anatomist, physiologist, physician, embryologist.  Catholic.
His works include In librum Galeni de humoribus commentarii (1556), which contained his translation of Galen's De humoribus, and Anatomicae praelectiones (Rome, 1586), his course of anatomical lectures. To his anatomical descriptions he added pathological observations. Anatomical description was less important in his work than physiological theory was, theory drawn from Galen, Aristotle, and neoplatonims. His Praelectiones contain a long dissertation on generation. In the sixteenth century, the Italian philosopher and physician, Arcangelo Piccolomini, was the first to make the distinction between white matter and the cortex.
A member of the Medical College of Rome. Protofisico of the College in 1580.
Charles de l'Écluse, L'Escluse, or Carolus Clusius (February 19, 1526 – April 4, 1609), seigneur de Watènes.
A Flemish doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists. In the history of gardening he is remembered not only for his scholarship but also for his observations on tulips "breaking" — a phenomenon discovered in the late 19th century to be due to a virus — causing the many different flamed and feathered varieties, which led to the speculative tulip mania of the 1630s. Clusius laid the foundations of Dutch tulip breeding and the bulb industry today. His first publication was a French translation of Rembert Dodoens's herbal, published in Antwerp in 1557 by van der Loë. He made a painting of what he called "Papas Peruanorum" from a specimen of the potato from the New World in the Low Countries; in 1601 he reported that potatoes were in common use in northern Italy for animal fodder and for human consumption. Clusius was also among the first to study the flora of Austria, under the auspices of Emperor Maximilian II. He was the first botanist to climb the Ötscher and the Schneeberg in Lower Austria, which was also the first documented ascent of the latter. His contribution to the study of alpine plants has led to many of them being named in his honour, such as Gentiana clusii, Potentilla clusiana and Primula clusiana. The genus Clusia (whence the family Clusiaceae) also honours Clusius.

Adam Lonitzer / Lonicerus (1528-1586). German botanist, natural historian, physician, mathematician. 

The herb genus Lonicera was named after him. As well as acting as municipal physician, he wrote books on public health, such as regulations for controlling the plague (with Johann Palmerius, 1572) and regulations for midwives (1573).  Education: 1536, University of Marburg, received a B.A. (1540), and M.A. (1545).  He studied medicine at Marburg and at Mainz. He received his M.D. in 1554 from Marburg.

Giulio Cesare Aranzio (c. 1530-1589).  Italian anatomist, physiologist, surgeon.
Aranzio dicovered the pedes hippocamp, the cerebellum cistern, the fourth ventricle, and the arterial duct between the aorta and the pulmonary duct.  Aranzio published De humano foetu libellus in 1563, and Liber anatomicarum observationum in 1579. In these he presented the new direction of anatomy, based not mere on simple description of the organs of the body but also on experimental investigation of their functions.  His work on the foetus led to advice on delivery.  He was the first firm advocate of the lesser circulation of the blood. Lecturer in medicine and surgery at the University of Bologna, 1556-1570.  Professor of surgery and professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna, 1570-89.  Education: He studied medicine at the University of Bologna, and received both M.D. and Ph.D. at Bologna in 1556.
Leonhard Rauwolf (1535-1596).  German botanist, geographer, pharmacologist, physician.  Lutheran.
His main notability arises from a trip he made through the Levant and Mesopotamia in 1573-75. The motive of the trip was to search for herbal medicine supplies. Shortly after he returned, he published a set of new botanical descriptions with an herbarium. Later he published a general travel narrative about his visit. Rauwolf's knowledge of botany was certainly meant to be exploited by the Manlich firm in their search for new pharmaceutical products.
Rauwolff was the first European botanist of the post-medieval era to travel in Syria and Mesopotamia. Very shortly after his return he published the results of his botanic expeditions in his fourth herbarium "Viertes Kreutterbuech -- darein vil schoene und frembde Kreutter". The plant genus Rauvolfia Plum. ex L. was named in his honor in the 18th century. Rauwolfia serpentine was the source of the first anti-hypertensive herb used in modern medicine (reserpine). The plant genus Alhagi, including its Arabic name, has it origin in Rauwolff's botany writings.
José de Acosta, S.J. (1539-1600). Spanish missionary.  Natural historian and geographer.
Entered Jesuit order (1551). José de Acosta, S.J. (Spanish: 1540-1600) is called the Pliny of the New World because of his book Natural and Moral History of the Indies which provided the first detailed description of the geography and culture of Latin America, Aztec history and - of all things - the uses of coca. For his work on altitude sickness in the Andes he is listed as one of the pioneers of modern aeronautical medicine. José was far ahead of his time in the selection and description of his observations. Not satisfied, however, with mere descriptions, he tried to explain causes. José was one of the earliest geophysicists, having been among the first to observe, record and analyze earthquakes, volcanoes, tides, currents, magnetic declinations and meteorological phenomena.
Salomon Alberti (1540-1600).  German physician, specialist in anatomy.
Alberti's most noteworthy achievement was the study of the venous valves. He was the first to provide illustrations of venous valves in Tres orationes (Nuremberg, 1585).  Having studied the lacrimal apparatus, he published De lacrimis in 1581.  He also provided an extended account of the ileocecal valve, the cochlea, and, as an original contribution, the renal papillae.  In Oratio de surditate et mutitate (Nuremberg, 1591), he discussed the problem of deafness and muteness. His treatise De achorbuto, published in the same year, was led by his interest in the problem of scurvy.  He taught in the medical faculty at Wittenberg for many years, and became physician to Duke Friedrich Wilhelm of Saxony in 1592. There he was dean of the philosophical faculty, thrice dean of the medical faculty, and also thrice rector of the University.  He was physician to Duke Friedrich Wilhelm from 1592-1600.
Volcher Coiter (1534-1576).  Dutch-born anatomist, embryologist, physician, physiologist.
Coiter was the first to raise comparative anatomy to independent status in biology. His research covered almost the entire vertebrate series.  His studies on the development of the chick were epochal. Based on observations made on 20 successive days, they presented the first systematic statement since the three- period description provided by Aristotle.
Félix Platter (1536-1614).  Swiss physician, botanist, pathologist, psychiatrist.
Platter was one of the foremost pathologists at the end of the sixteenth century. The Observationes is a collection of vivid descriptions of a wide variety of diseases, including all the then known psychiatric disorders. Platter was one of the first to study mental illness scientifically, seeking its origin in physiological rather than supernatural causes. He gives substantial accounts of gynaecological disorders, of the plague, and of certain dermatological conditions. Among the specific contributions to medical history in this book are the first known report of a case of death from hypertrophy of the thymus, in an infant; the first description of the condition later termed "Dupuytren's contracture"; and an account of a meningioma.
Girolamo Fabrici / Fabricius / Fabrizi (1537-1619). Italian surgeon, teacher and anatomist, considered the founder of the science of embryology.
Italian anatomist and embryologist.  From 1574 he made detailed studies of the veins and blood flow and discovered the existence of one-way valves that direct the blood towards the heart. He also studied the development of chick embryos.  Fabricius also investigated the mechanics of respiration, the action of muscles, the anatomy of the larynx (about which he was the first to give a full description) and the eye (he was the first to correctly describe the location of the lens and the first to demonstrate that the pupil changes size).
From 1600 until his death, he carried out important and original research on the late fetal stages of many different animals. In 1612, he published the first detailed description of the development of the chick embryo from the sixth day onward. Student of Gabriel Fallopius and his successor as professor at Padua (1562-1613); discovered semilunar valves of the veins, published in De venarum ostiolis (1603); conducted studies in embryology of various animals and man, publishing De formato foetu (1604) and De formatione ovi et pulli (1621).  In addition to his scholarly work, Fabricius made other contributions. He attained considerable fame as a teacher. His most famous student was William Harvey, who studied with him from 1597 to 1602. In addition, Fabricius was instrumental in establishing the first permanent anatomical theater at the University of Padua. His collected works were published posthumously in Opera omnia anatomica et physiologica (1625).
Guillaume de Baillou (c. 1538-1616).  French physician, founder of modern epidemiology, who revived Hippocratic medical practice in Renaissance Europe. 
Guillaume de Baillou was born in 1538, the son of a famous mathematician, architect, and engineer. His affluent family owned an estate at Nogent-le-rotrou. He studied at the University of Paris, concentrating in Latin, Greek, and Philosophy, and later earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1568. He continued his studies there, earning a Doctorate in Medicine in 1570.  Dean of medical faculty, University of Paris (from 1580); revived Hippocratic medical practice in France. Described whooping cough (1578), gave modern definition of rheumatism; pioneer in epidemiology in Epidemiorum (1640), survey of epidemics in Paris 1570-79. He is known for his descriptions of the plague, measles, and diphtheria. He also taught the humanities, and later became professor of medicine. Baillou served as a teacher for 46 years, eventually becoming Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. Refusing to leave his medical practice, he declined King Henry IV's invitation to be a physician to the Dauphin, the eldest son of the French king, as Baillou was esteemed for his treatment of children. Baillou, however, did later became a physician to Henry IV.
Mathias de L'Obel (1538-1616).  Belgian botanist, pharmacologist.  Catholic.
L'Obel's Stirpium adversaria nova (1571, written with Pierre Pena) is one of the milestones of modern botany. Later, Stirpium observationes, a sort of complement to the Adversaria, was joined to it under the title Plantarum seu stirpium historia (1576). Also other books on botany.
His botanical work was directed toward the pharmacological use of plants. L'Obel published an essay on the pharmacology of Rondelet as part of a reissue of his Adversia in 1605. He referred to Lord Zouch's garden as the garden of medicine.
Olivier de Serres (1539-1619).  French botanist, entomologist. 
Serres introduced sericulture to France. He also proposed a method manufacturing coarse cloth from the bark of the mulberry tree.  Catholic, then Calvinist.
Serres spent time at the end of the century in Paris presenting plans to Henry IV for expansion of sericulture and the diffusion of the mulberry tree. He is largely responsible for the mulberry craze and inspired the King to make extensive plantings in France. He is sometimes given the title of father of French agriculture.
Serres' Théatre d'agriculture (1600) was a very popular work appearing in several editions throughout the century. The work aimed to present a complete survey of all aspects of agriculture starting with advice on running a household. He discussed domestication and cultivation of all the plants and animals he knew. He was an enthusiastic advocate of the use of irrigation to improve meadows, of careful drainage, and of conservation of water. He was among the first agriculturist north of the Alps to argue for innovation and experimentation. He supported the sowing of artificial grasses. He introduced hops to France and was the first agricultural writer to desrcibe and encourage the cultivation of maize and potatoes. I have categorized this under botany; it is the only similar case I have met.
Serres acquired a national reputation as an authority on the silkworm and sericulture. Two sections of his book were published separately. La cuillette de la soye, which appeared as a preprint in 1599, gave the first detailed accounts of the life cycle of silkworms. La seconde richesse du meurier-blanc promoted a method of manufacturing course cloth from the bark of the mulberry trees.
As a young man he was converted to Protestantism. As early as 1561 he seems to have been regarded as a leader of the local Huguenots. He was a deacon of the church of Berg. He was sent by his congregation to find a minister. During the civil war the parish church vessels were entrusted to Serres for sale. In 1562 he was appointed by the 'Etats particuleurs' of Vivarais to a position under Count Crussol. He commanded forces from 1560-70 in local campaigns. He was driven from his family estate, Pradel, more than once during these years. He also participated in the conferences to arrange local peace.
Don Martin de la Cruz. Physician, Healer (Fl. c. 1500's)
Don Martin de la Cruz was born in Zacapan, Xochimilco in the late fifteenth century Study in a calmecac and at the age of 50 he entered the Royal College of the Holy Cross of Tlatelolco (founded in 1533) where he was a healer and student. His book is called original Amate-Cehuatl - Xihuitl-Pitli and in this codex the is displayed in the home using a dress fashioned doctor to the indigenous.
The Badianus Manuscript, (Codex Barberini, Latin 241) an Aztec Herbal of 1552, was discovered at the Vatican Library in 1929 by Professor Charles U. Clark. The manuscript was bound in 16th century crimson velvet and is the earliest treatise on Mexican medicinal plants and native remedies which has ever come down to us. It is the work of two Aztec Indians, Martinus de la Cruz, a native physician who composed the work in Aztec, and another Indian, Juannes Badianus, who translated the text into Latin.
The manuscript was reprinted in 1940 by the John's Hopkins Press, and all the quoted material in this article comes from this publication. The Martin de la Cruz award, named for the author or this manuscript, is given every year in Mexico to healers who have shown their dedication to keeping alive this indigenous work, which was a made under the tutelage of friars.
Michele Mercati (1541-1593). Italian physician and naturalist.
Director of Vatican botanical garden (from 1561); physician to Pope Clement VIII; established natural history museum in Vatican and wrote a description of it in Metallotheca Vaticana (1574). Also wrote Istruzione sopra la peste (1576), Degli obelischi di Roma (1589).
Jean Bauhin (1541-1613). 
Swiss physician and botanist at Basel; physician to Duke Frederick of Wurttemberg (from 1571); wrote  Historia plantarum universalis, a compilation of all that was then known about botany.  It was not complete at his death, but was published at Yverdon in 1650-51.  Elder brother to Gaspard Bauhin. Studied botany at Tbingen under Leonard Fuchs (1501-1566), and travelling with Conrad Gesner, practiced medicine at Basel, where he was elected professor of rhetoric in 1766. Four years later he was invited to become physician to the Duke of Wurttemberg at Montbliard, where he remained till his death in 1613. He also wrote a book, De aquis niedicagis (1605). Calvinist French Protestant. His father was a Huguenot refugree from France.  Displayed his archeological collections in a museum at Duke Frederick's chateau. 
Petrus Severinus / Peder Sorensen (1542-1602).  Danish iatrochemist, physician.
He was Denmark's leading adherent to Paracelsianism. Only two of his writings, which he tended not to finish, were published, Idea medicinae philosophicae (1571), the first major synthesis of Paracelsianism, and Epistola scripta Theophrasto Paracelso (1572), which reached a large audience.  He corresponded with a number of leading Paracelsians, such as Zwinger, Gohory, and Moffet.
William Gilbert (1544-1603).  English scientist, physician, pharmacologist, instrument-maker, expert on magnetism, electricity, navigation and natural philosophy.  Anglican.
Medical practice, from perhaps 1577 to 1603. He was one of the prominent physicians in London, consulted among others by the aristocracy.  Toward the end of his life, Gilbert became one of the personal physicians to Elizabeth I, 1600-03. Physician to James I, 1603.
Gilbert participated in the compilation of the College of Physicians' Pharmacopoeia.
He specifically proposed the use of magnetic declination and dip to determine longitude and latitude. Thomas Blundevelle describes the two instruments of Gilbert's invention intended for these purposes: The Versorium for magnetic investigations, and a similar device for electrical. De magnete, 1600, is the enduring basis of Gilbert's fame.  Posthumously, De mundo nostro sublunari philosophia nova was published in 1651.
Jan van Heurne (1543-1601).  Dutch physician.  Catholic, then Calvinist.
In the history of medicine van Heurne is known primarily for his advocacy of bedside teaching, which was rare then and unknown in the Netherlands. It was introduced in Leiden (under his son) half a century later.
Immediately after completing his medical education, he was for two years the personal physician to Francois Perrenot, the nephew (Lindeboom says brother) of Cardinal Granvelle. When Heurne converted to Calvinism, he left to return to the Netherlands.  He practiced medicine in Utrecht from 1573 until 1581, known as one of the most prominent physicians in the Netherlands, whose patients included William and Maurice of Orange.
In 1581 he was appointed professor of medicine at Leiden, a position he held until his death. He was Rector of the university during six separate years between 1583 and 1600.
Antiquariaat FORUM B.V.: "Born in Utrecht Jan van Heurne was taught at the Hieronymus School by Georgius Macropedius and went to study at Louvain and at Paris, where he became interested in surgery, so he proceeded to Italy to study at the famous medical centre Padua. Back home he practiced in Utrecht and became professor in medicine at the new University at Leyden. He was the first to propose bedside teaching for medical students in Northern Europe. The University Board at Leyden however, delayed decision, and bedside teaching was only introduced after the author's death, during the son's, Otto van Heurne's, professorship at Leyden. Heurnius' works were known at the time all over Europe, and were both much translated and republished. His Opera Omnia were published in 1611 and 1615, also edited by Otto van Heurne, in various compositions and editions of the separate works."
Membership: Medical College; Informal Connections: He knew Thomas Wright and William Barlowe.
Costanzo Varolio (1543-1575). Italian surgeon and anatomist. Catholic.
Professor, Bologna (1569-72); author of De nervis opticis (1573), in which he described the pons Varolii on undersurface of the brain. He is best remembered for his work on the cranial nerves. He was the first to examine the brain from its base upwards, in contrast with previous dissections which had been performed from the top downwards. In 1573 he published this new method of dissecting the brain whereby he separated the brain from the skull and began the dissection from the base. Varolio described many of the brain's structures for the first time including the pons or pons Varolii which is a reflex center of respiration and a communication bridge between spinal cord and brain, the crura cerebri and the ileocecal valve.
Another area of interest to him was the mechanism of erectile function. Although the "Musculi erectores penis" (i.e. Mm. bulbospongiosi and ischicavernosi) had already been described by Galen in the 2nd century A.D., this knowledge was lost by the time of Varolio, who re-discovered them and gave a surprisingly accurate description of the mechanism of erection although his inaccurate attribution of erection to "erector muscles" continued to be believed by most anatomists for three centuries.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci, (5 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian polymath.
He was a painter, sculptor, architect, scientist, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, astronomer, cartographer, botanist, historian and writer. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived in the Western world.
Leonardo's formal training in the anatomy of the human body began with his apprenticeship to Andrea del Verrocchio, who insisted that all his pupils learn anatomy. As an artist, he quickly became master of topographic anatomy, drawing many studies of muscles, tendons and other visible anatomical features.
As a successful artist, he was given permission to dissect human corpses at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence and later at hospitals in Milan and Rome. From 1510 to 1511 he collaborated in his studies with the doctor Marcantonio della Torre. Leonardo made over 240 detailed drawings and wrote about 13,000 words towards a treatise on anatomy.
John Gerard (1545-1612). English botanist, herbalist, and barber-surgeon.
Became famous for his London garden containing rare plants; superintendent of Burghley's gardens (1577-98). Published a list of plants growing in his own garden (1596) and The Herball, or generall historie of plantes (1597). The genus Gerardia is named for him.
Except for the additions of a number of plants from his own garden and from North America, Gerard's Herbal is largely an English translation of Rembert Dodoens's Herbal of 1554, itself also highly popular (in Dutch, Latin, French and other English translations).
Gerard's Herball is profusely illustrated with high-quality drawings of plants, with the printer's woodcuts for the drawings largely coming from Dodoens's book and from other Continental European sources,‪[3]‬ but also containing an original title page with copperplate engraving by William Rogers.
Two decades after Gerard's death, his Herbal was corrected and expanded to about 1700 pages. The botanical genus Gerardia is named in Gerard's honor.
Jean Beguin (c. 1550-c. 1620).  German pharmacologist, chemist, physician.
Beguin published the Tyrocinium chymicum in 1610. Most of the book was concerned with chemical operations rather than with theory, and he emphasized that the most effective therapy combined Galenic and Paracelsian remedies. Beguin was credited with the first mention of acetone, which he called 'the burning spirit of Saturn.' The Tyrocinium chymicum was immensely popular through the 17th century. It was translated into the major European languages and issued in many editions. It set the pattern for the notable series of French chemical textbook in the later part of the century.
Anselmus Boetius de Boodt (c. 1550-1632).  Belgian mineralogist.  Alchemist, physician.  Catholic.
In his chief work, Gemmarum et lapidum historia, Boodt made the first attempt at a systematic description of minerals. He enumerated about 600 minerals that he knew from personal observation, and described their properties, imitations, and medical applications. Along with the German known as Georgius Agricola, de Boodt was responsible for establishing modern mineralogy. De Boodt was an avid mineral collector who travelled widely to various mining regions in Germany, Bohemia and Silesia to collect samples. His definitive work on the subject was the Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia (1609).
Timothie Bright (1551-1615). Physician, Clergyman.
Physician of St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, wrote the  Treatise on Melancholy, the first book in the English language on the subject of mental illness. Some of the phrases Bright used in his descriptions of disordered behavior appeared later in the plays of William Shakespeare. In 1588 Bright authored the first practical system of shorthand published in the English language. Dedicated to Queen Elizabeth I, Bright's system had no alphabet and consisted of more than 500 arbitrary characters that had to be memorized. Bright afterwards abandoned the medical profession and took holy orders.
Francisco Sanches (c. 1551-1623).  Portuguese natural philosopher, physician, anatomist, mathematician.
Sanches wrote anatomical works and was a careful clinical observer.  His Quod nihil scitur, 1581, was a rigorous skeptical attack on Aristotelian science. Only particulars can be known, but the senses also are imperfect.  He questioned Clavius on mathematics, in print.  Sanchez was of Jewish descent. He adhered to Catholicism.
Giulio Casseri (c. 1552-1616).  Italian anatomist, physiologist, embryologist, physician.  Catholic.
Casseri's achievemens are collected in three anatomical works: De vocis auditusque organis historia anatomica (Ferrara, 1600- 1601), Pentaestheseion, hoc est de quinque sensibus liber (Venice, 1609), and Tabulae anatomicae LXXIIX, omnes nec ante hac visae (Venice,1627). He left important illustrations of the formation of the foetus.
Thomas Moffett (1553-1604).  English natural historian, entomologist, physician, iatrochemist, pharmacologist, agriculturalist.  Anglican.
While in Basle, Moffet published several medical treatises, and later Nosomantica, 1588, a book on diagnosis. He became a Paracelsian and published De jure et praestantia chemicorum medicamentorum dialogus apologeticus, 1584. Either with De jure or at much the same time, Epistolae quinque medicinales. Both of these were iatrochemical, Paracelsian works; both were included in Zetzner's Theatrum chemicum.
He is best known for Theatrum insectorum, which was published only well after his death, in 1634. He was also the author of The Silkewormes and their Flies, 1599, an effort to promote the planting of mulberry trees and the raising of silkworms in England. Health's Improvement, 1655, was also posthumous. It is mostly about diet. It includes some natural history. Moffett participated in the College of Physicians' project to compose a pharmacopoeia.
Member: Royal College of Physicians, 1588-1604; Censor 1588.  Informal Connections: Studied medicine at Cambridge under John Caius. Intimate friendship and cooperation with Penny.  Studied medicine at Basle under Felix Platter and Theodor Zwinger.
Prospero Alpini (1553-1616 or 1617). Italian botanist and physician.
Professor at Padua(from 1593); author of De medicina Aegyptorum (1591), De plantis Aegypti liber (1593), De praesagienda vita etmorte aegrotontium (1601); credited with introducing coffee and bananas to Europe. Alpini's De plantis Aegypti  was the first treatment of the plants of Egypt. He accompanied the Venetian consul to Egypt as his personal physician, residing there from 1580 to 1583. He was the first European to mention the coffee plant and the first to record the sexual differences of the date-palm tree. Alpini was director of the Padua botanic gardens until his death in 1617.
Adam Zaluzansky ze Zaluzan (c. 1555-1613).  Bohemian botanist, physician, pharmacologist, mathematician, astronomer, classical scholar, poet.
Author of Methodi herbariae libri tres, (Prague, 1592). Republished in Frankfurt in 1604. In this work Zaluzansky discussed the concept that plants have sex. However, he did not recognize male and female sexes in plants, but held rather that plants have a separate, mixed sex.  Rad Apotekarsky (Pharmaceutical Order), 1592, resulted from Zaluzansky's work as supervisor of pharmacy in the Old City of Prague.  Cena neb vymereni vseck lekarstvi (Prices or Standards of All Medicine), 1596, 1604, 1659, 1699, 1737, published in Czech, German, and French.  Galenumet vicenam libri VII attacked old-fashioned superstitions in medicine and a plea for a return to the natural way of healing. The work was dedicated to Emperor Rudolf II.
Zaluzansky had close relations with specialists in medicine--Adam Hubr of Ryzmpach, and Mat. Borbonius and Theodor Sixtus of Ottersdorf--and with a prosecution lawyer, Jachym of Technice.  Protestant, an Utraquist, a denomination descended from Huss.
Santorio Santorio / Sanctorius (1561-1636). Italian physician who was the founder of modern quantitative medical research.  
Santorio was the first to employ instruments of precision in the practice of medicine, and whose studies of basal metabolism introduced quantitative experimental procedure. In Balkan region (1587-99); professor at Padua (1611-24). Adapted some inventions of his friend Galileo and developed a pulse clock (1602) and a clinical thermometer (1612); investigated insensible perspiration, published results in De statica medicina (1614).
'Through most of the 17th and 18th centuries Santorio's name was linked with that of Harvey as the greatest figure in physiology and experimental medicine because of his introduction of precision instruments for quantitative studies. He was also the founder of modern metabolic research' (Garrison and Morton n. 572.1)."
Gaspard Bauhin (1560-1624). Swiss botanist and anatomist.
Professor, Basel (from 1582); one of first to describe ileocecal (Bauhin's) valve(1588); compiled Theatrum Anatomicum (1605), finest anatomical textbook of the day; introduced a binomial system of nomenclature for botany in Pinax theatri botanica (1623). His elder brother Jean Bauhin (1541-1613), physician and botanistat Basel; physician to duke of Wurttemberg (from 1571); compiled Historia plantarum universalis (1650-51). Co-physician to Duke Frederick of Wuerttemberg (his father, son, and grandson were also physicians in various courts).  His books dedicated to various barons. Calvinist French Protestant. His father was a Huguenot refugee from France.

John Tradescant (I) (c. 1570 or 1575-1638). English naturalist, botanist.
Naturalist and gardener to Charles I; collected plants and other natural history objects. Anglican.  His son (1608-1662) succeeded to post of royal gardener (1638); added to his father's collection. The two John Tradescants, father and son, were skilled gardeners with minimal claims to be considered scientists. However, the elder John Tradescant collected everything curious in natural history--minerals, birds, fish, insects, as well as coins, medals, and miscellaneous curiosities. Plantarum in horto Johannum Tradescanti nasentium catalogus, was printed in 1634. As gardeners, he and his son introduced a number of new plants into England. He set up the first botanical garden and museum in England and attracted many naturalists and botanists.

English gardener and botanist who travelled widely in Europe and is thought to have introduced the cos lettuce to England from the Greek island of that name. The Tradescants introduced many new plants to Britain, including the acacia, lilac, and occidental plane. Tradescant senior is generally considered the earliest collector of plants and other natural-history objects.
Daniel Sennert (1572-1637).  German physician, chemist, natural philosopher.
Sennert's first book was Institutiones medicinae, 1611, and later there were other medical works: Epitome scientiae naturalis, 1618, and Hypomnemata physicae, 1636, both dealt with general issues in natural philosophy. He contributed to the revival of atomism.  Sennert was influenced by Paracelsus and he wrote influentially on chemistry.
Sennert's collected works alone went through nine editions within the space of forty years, and individual works were also republished. Claude Bonnet, a professor at Avignon, produced an expurgated edition of his works suitable for use by Roman Catholics in 1655.
From 1602-47, Sennert was Professor of medicine, University of Wittenberg. He was Dean of the medical faculty six times during that period.  It is recorded that Sennert remained at his post in Wittenberg through seven plagues and died in the eighth.
Theodore Turquet de Mayerne (1573-1655).  Swiss-born physician, iatrochemist, entomologist, pharmacologist, chemist.
Theodore Beza was Turquet's godfather. Turquet resisted efforts to convert him in France. Religion was the ultimate reason for his move to England following the assassination of Henry IV. Though he was not a prominent scientific figure in his own right, he was influential in the introduction and support of chemical therapy in medicine. After 1597, Turquet went to Paris and became the protegé of Jean Ribit [Riverius], his teacher at Montpellier and the chief physician to Henry IV. Both Ribit and Turquet endorsed the use of chemical remedies in their practice and fostered the training of apothecaries in the preparation of new medicants. Turquet gave lectures to whatever students would come, which included mostly surgeons and apothecaries.
His advocacy of iatrochemistry embroiled him in a bitter polemic with the Paris Faculty of Medicine. His opposition wrote the Apologia pro medicina Hippocratis & Galeni, contra Mayernium & Quercetanum, in which G. Heron, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, wrote a few paragraphs in support of the diatribe against Turquet and his colleagues. Turquet responded with a written defense of chemical therapy (also titled Apologia). Subsequent attacks from the opposition were instigated by Riolan Sr. and led to the censuring of Turquet. Since by 1603 Turquet had the position of a royal physician, the official censure of the Faculty did not effect his practice at court. However, he ultimately left for England.

In 1616 he was elected fellow to the Royal College of Physicians. Upon his death bed he bequethed his library to this organization.
William Harvey (1578-1657) English physician, biologist and anatomist.
He was the founder of modern experimental physiology and the first to use quantitative methods to establish verifiability in the natural sciences.  Studied medicine under Fabricius and Galileo at Padua (1597-1602); practiced in London; physician of St. Bartholomew's Hospital (1609-43); Lumleian Lecturer at College of Physicians (1615-56); physician extraordinary to James I (1618) and Charles I (1625). Royalist in sympathy during Civil War. First expounded theory of circulation of the blood in Exercitatio de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (1628), including explanations of heart valves, arterial pulse, pulmonary circulation, venous valves; also wrote Exercitationes de Generatione Animalium (1651) on animal reproduction. Harvey believed in the divine authorship and authority of the Bible and the deity of Christ, and that the search for purpose in nature resulting from God's creative wisdom was a strong motivation behind his work.
Cited as #10 in importance of the Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium by the World Almanac and Book of Facts, Annual 2000.
Martin Ruland the Younger (1569-1611).  German-born physician, iatrochemist.
He was born in the Bavarian town of Lauingen, the son of the physician and alchemist Martin Ruland the Elder. Ruland applied the principles of Paracelsan medicine in his treatment of patients. Ruland the Younger practized at Regensburg during the 1590s and later at Prague. In Prague, he belonged to Emperor Rudolf II's retinue at the Habsburg court which during Rudolf's reign promoted the study of alchemy and astrology. Rudolf II conferred nobility upon Ruland the Younger in 1608.
Ruland's 1612 Lexicon alchemiae (Dictionary of Alchemy)‪‬ is cited by the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung in his writings on alchemy. Waite translated the book into the English language.
Antonio Neri (1576- c. 1614).  Italian chemist, alchemist, iatrochemist, pharmacologist, Catholic priest (ordained before 1601).
Neri is remembered only for L'arte vetraria (1612), a little book in which many of the closely guarded secrets of glassmaking were printed for the first time.  He was known in the 17th century also as an alchemist, and his patron, Don Antonio Medici, is known to have been deeply involved in alchemy.  Neri also called himself a cultivator of the Spagyrical art of herbalism.
Angelo Sala / Angelus (c. 1576-1637).  Italian-born physician, pharmacologist.  Catholic, then Calvinist.
Angelo Sala was the self-educated son of an Italian spinner whose experiments with silver salts were an important step towards the invention of the photographic process. In 1614, he demonstrated that the sun blackened powdered silver nitrate, as well as paper that was wrapped around it, and published his findings in a pamphlet. Robert Boyle had made a similar observation previously, but mistakenly believed that the darkening resulted from exposure to air, rather than light. It was not until Sala's discovery was combined with the optics work of many others, however, that photography was finally invented in the 1830s.
Sala began publishing on chemistry and medicines in about 1608-9. He published rather extensively in the genre, including a book of medications in 1624. In 1617 he published a book on the plague and how to cope with it.
Early he was influenced by Paracelsus and published in the Paracelsian tradition. Later Sala became skeptical of some the Paracelsus' theories, and in his later years he strove to amalgamate Paracelsianism with Galenic medicine.  Sala's theories on chemical composition were historically important. The whole family moved to Geneva in the late 16th century, converting to Calvinism.
Adriaan van den Spiegel / Spiegelius (1578-1625).  Belgian-born botanist, physician, anatomist, embryologist, physiologist.  Calvinist, then Catholic.
Spiegel's first book was Isagoge in rem herbariam (1606).  He later published works on the tapeworm and on malaria.  He composed a great work on anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica, published posthumously in 1627.  He left behind a manuscript (also published posthumously) on embryology, De formatu foetu.  His works on anatomy are filled with passages on physiology.  In 1623, Spiegel was elevated to the rank of Knight of San Marco.
Associated eponyms:  Spiegel's hernia, An uncommon abdominal wall hernia through the semilunar line, above the epigastric artery; Spiegel's line, A slight groove which is the line of abdomen lying parallel to the median line and marking the lateral margin of the rectus abdominis muscle; Spiegel's lobe, The caudate lobe of the liver; Spigelia, A plant of the family of Loganiacae.
"Spiegel is eponymously remembered by Spieghel's lobe of the liver, and by Spieghel's line of the muscles of the abdominal wall. His long and detailed text did much to bring order to anatomical nomenclature, and to describe accurately certain muscle groups. In De formatu foetu 'Spigelius made the first observation of the occurence of milk in female breasts at birth, gave the first denial of the presence of a nerve in the umbilical cord, and abolished the notion that the meconium in the foetal intestines argued for eating in utero on the part of the embryo' (Needham, History of embryology, pp. 99-100)."
Jean Riolan, Jr. (1580-1657).  French anatomist, physician.  Catholic.
Riolan was a trained anatomist and dissector and emphasized the superiority of active anatomical observation over long reading and profound meditations. Like his father he was a stern defender of traditional medicine and declared himself an enemy to chemical healers.
He established his reputation through a series of textbooks, the most important being the second edition of Anthropographia (1626). These works reveal a mastery of original observation and of the classical and modern literature. In his later Encheiridium (1648) he included a systematic presentation of both morbid and normal anatomy.
Though in his later years he tried to accept new discoveries, he continually tried to uphold Galenic medicine and opposed the anatomical interpretations of Pecquet, Bartholin, and Harvey.  He became the principal physician of the Queen Mother, Maie de Madicis. He accompanied her on her foreign travels, and attended her final illness at Cologne in 1642.  He was also physician to Henry IV and Louis XIII.
Marco Aurelio Severino (1580-1656).  Italian surgeon, anatomist, physician, physiologist, natural philosopher, microscopist.  Catholic.
Severino became famous throughout Europe as a surgeon; he published extensively on surgery and pathology, making himself famous across Europe.  Zootomia democritaea has been called the first work of comparative anatomy, but it is also the exposition of Severino's view of natural philosophy.
Severino had distinct ideas on the reform of physiology and published (posthumously) two works on it: Antiperipatias and Phoca illustratus. After initial opposition to Harvey he became an enthusiastic supporter.
Antiperipatias shows Severino's critical attitude toward Aristotle and his inclination toward the philosophy of Democritus, mixed eclectically with the influence of Campanella and Telesio. His works frequently broached broad issues of natural philosophy.
He was one of the early life scientists to use the microcope--in the dissection of plants, preparing the way for Malpighi.
Severino was well known north of the alps, apparently better known there than in Italy. He corresponded with Harvey, Thomas Bartholin, Worm, Vesling, Campanella, et al.  A partial inventory of his correspondence is found in V. Ducceschi, "L'epistolario de M.A. Severino," Revista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 14 (1923), 213-23.
Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585-1629). Danish physician. Professor of medicine (1613), then of divinity (1624), University of Copenhagen.
He was a polymath, finally accepting a professorship in medicine at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1613. He later taught theology at the same university. First to describe olfactory nerve as first cranial nerve. Author of Anatomicae Institutiones Corporis Humani (1611), widely used manual of anatomy. His sons Thomas Bartholin (1616-1680) and  Erasmus Bartholin (1625-1698) also contributed to advances in science. Of his sons, two, Thomas and Erasmus, were also noted scholars.
Guy de La Brosse (c. 1586-1641).  French botanist, physician, pharmacologist.
His major book, De la nature, vertu et utilité des plantes (Paris, 1628), was a theoretical book about plants in general. In it he raised questions about the generation, growth, and nutrition of plants. He also published a monograph on the causes of the plague, Traicté de la peste (Paris, 1623), and several other works on medicine, on plants, and on the collection of plants in the Jardin du Roi.
His titles make it clear that he regarded the Jardin du Roi as a collection of medicinally useful plants. The edict establishing it referred to it as a "Jardin des Plantes Medicinales" for the instruction of students of medicine. From the beginning, La Brosse's idea of the Jardin included instruction in chemistry as a handmaiden to medicine, and he devoted part of his works to Paracelsian chemistry.
Joachim Jungius (1587-1657).  German physician, philosopher of science.
In1625, Jungius was Professor of medicine, University of Helmstedt.  From 1624-1625 and 1626-1628, he was Professor of mathematics, University of Rostock.  From 1629-1657, he was Professor of natural science and Rector of the Akademisches Gymnasium, Hamburg. n mathematics Jungius proved that the catenary is not a parabola (Galileo assumed it was). He was one of the first to use exponents to represent powers and he used mathematics as a model for the natural sciences.
Francis Glisson (c. 1597-1677).  English physician, anatomist, physiologist, embryologist, natural philosopher.
Glisson was educated at Cambridge University, Gonville and Caius College, 1617-34; B.A., 1621; M.A., 1624; incorporated M.A. at Oxford, 1627; M.D., 1634.  He wrote De rachitide, 1650, a classic on rickets.  Anatomia hepatis, 1654, contains, inter alia, the description of Glisson's capsule.  Tractatus de natura substantiae energetica, 1672, expounds a theory of natural philosophy that all bodies have life.  Tractatis de ventriculo et intestines, 1677, contains a physiological theory based on a succus nutritus distributed by the nerves, and psychic spirits that the succus carries. It asserts the existence of a general property of irritability in all living parts of the body. It is also a general work on the anatomy and pysiology of digestion. This work also discusses embryogenesis.
Johann Vesling / Veslingius (1598-1649).  German-born anatomist, physician, botanist, embryologist, pharmacologist.  Catholic.
Vesling published Syntagma anatomicum, 1641, an extremely popular text that went through many editions and many translations. It includes a number of original observations, including some on the lacteals and lymphatics.
In Egypt Vesling studied the flora and later published De plantis aegyptiis, 1638. In 1638 he ceased to lecture on surgery at Padua and turned wholly to botany. In the final years of his life he renovated the botanical garden in Padua. As the botanical garden in Padua implies, his study of plants, from the beginning in Egypt, include their pharmacological uses.  In Egypt Vesling also studied the development of the chicken in artificially hatched eggs. His connection with the botanical garden entailed pharmacology, and already in Egypt his initial study was of medicinal plants.
Giovanni Trulli / Trullio / Trullius (1598-1661).  Italian-born physician, surgeon.  Catholic.
Trulli was consulted on the blindness of Galileo, and his written opinion in response to Galileo's (lost) description of his symptoms, is the fullest medical document on the blindness. However, he is not wholly lacking in modest scientific credentials even though he never published anything. In connection with the correspondence about Galileo it appears that Trulli had formulated a theory about cataracts. He developed a very high reputation as a surgeon. He proposed to publish a collection of observations and a treatise on aneurisms, although he did not in fact carry through with the plan. Severino carried on a scientific correspondence with him. He became one of the Italian supporters of the circulation of the blood.
Guerner Rolfinck (1599-1673).  German physician, botanist, chemist, anatomist, pharmacologist.
From1625 - c.28, Rolfinck practiced medicine and taught anatomy in Venice. After graduating from Padua, he was in such demand as an anatomist that he received the license to teach simultaneously with his degree. In 1628 he received the call to become ordinary professor of medicine at Padua, but he had already returned to Germany.  From 1628-9, Rolfinck was professor of anatomy, University of Wittenberg.  From 1629-73, he was professor of anatomy, surgery, and botany, University of Jena.  He established the first anatomical theater (1629), the botanical garden (1631, named director), and chemical laboratory (1630) at Jena.  In 1639, he was appointed director exercitii chymia, which became a professorship of chemistry in 1641.  He was rector of Jena six times.  He also maintained a personal practice. 
Memberships: Royal Society, 1660-77; Royal College of Physicians, 1635-77.
William Lilly (11 May 1602 – 9 June 1681) Medical Astrologer.
He is described as having been a genius at something "that modern mainstream opinion has since decided cannot be done at all", and having developed his stature as the most important astrologer in England through his social and political involvement, as well as his impact on the astrological tradition.‪ ‬Lilly has also been described as "the most abused as well as the most celebrated astrologer of the seventeenth century".‪ ‬He attracted the attention of many members of Parliament, through the support of Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, to whom he dedicated his book Christian Astrology. Having amassed a tolerable fortune, he bought a small estate at Hersham in Surrey, to which he retired, and where he diverted the exercise of his peculiar talents to the practice of medicine.
The publication of a facsimile of the original 1647 edition of Lilly's Christian Astrology in 1985 by Regulus Publishing Company Ltd., in the UK, brought about a renaissance in astrological scholarship in North America and Europe, and also a transformation of the techniques of modern astrology. Olivia Barclay and other British astrologers began to unearth Lilly's astrological work, and were influential in the eventual re-publication of Christian Astrology.
George Ent (1604-1689).  English physiologist, anatomist, pharmacologist, physician.
Ent published a defense of Harvey, Apologia pro circulatione sanguinis, 1641, in which he showed the influence also of hermetic authors and concepts of innate heat, which seem to look forward to Mayow. He also composed some minor anatomical works published as part of one of Charleton's books.
Ent dedicated Apologia pro circulatione to the Earl of Lincoln.  Granted a knighthood by Charles II in 1665 after an anatomy lecture at the College of Physicians at which the King was present. Ent was one of three fellows of the College of Physicians who supervised the revised edition of the Pharmacopoeia londonensis, 1650.
Member: Royal Society, 1660-89. Ent was one of the founding fellows and was named to the original Council in the charter of 1662; Royal College of Physicians, 1639. President, seven years between 1670 and 1684. Censor, 22 years between 1645-69; Medical College.  Informal connections: Friendship with Harvey from their chance meeting in Rome in 1636. He was one of the first writers to compose a detailed defense of Harvey. In 1648 he persuaded the elderly Harvey to release the manuscript of De Generatione which Ent edited and published with a commendatory preface in 1651. His transcript of Harvey's correspondence was used in the College of Physicians edition of Harvey's works in 1766. In Harvey's will, Ent was charged with dispersing his library in the College of Physicians.
Famiano Michelini (1604-1665).  Italian physician, pharmacologist, hydraulics specialist.  Catholic.
Michelini was ordained in 1636.  Although he did not have a medical degree, Michelini was interested in medicine, to which he applied the experimental method and helped to pave the way for Redi's experiments and Borelli's theories. Michelini urged the use of citrus juices and control of weight.  In 1664 he published Della direzione de' fiumi, a subject to which he had given major attention all his life.
At least during an epidemic Michelini ministered to the sick. Certainly he gave medical advice in general and composed Discourses on Health, which remained unpublished. Especially he advised the use of citrus juices as a medicine.
Through most of his career in Florence, Michelini was consulted on issues of hydraulics, such as the courses of the Chiana and Arno rivers and problems of drainage of the plain at Pisa. He advised boxes or bulkheads filled with stone to protect the banks of rivers. He also gave advice about the silting up of the lagoon at Venice.
Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604-1668). German chemist, apothecary, alchemist. 
Resident in Amsterdam (from 1655). Probably first to distill coal and obtain benzene and phenol; investigated decomposition of common salt through action of acids and bases. Glauber's salt is named after him.
Some of Glauber's principal works include Philosophical Furnaces; Commentary on Paracelsus; Heaven of the Philosophers, or Book of Vexation; Miraculum Mundi; The Prosperity of Germany; and Book of Fires.

Jeanne Mance (November 12, 1606 – June 18, 1673) Nurse.

French nurse and settler of New France. She arrived in New France two years after the Ursuline Nuns came to Quebec. Among the founders of Montreal, Canada in 1642, she established its first hospital, the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, in 1645. She returned twice to France to seek financial support for the hospital. After providing most of the care directly for years, in 1657 she recruited three sisters of the Religious Hospitallers of St. Joseph, and continued to direct operations of the hospital.

Christopher Merrett (1614-1695).  English natural historian, botanist, physician, chemist, pharmacologist.
Merrett's major work was Pinax rerum naturalium britannicarum, 1667, which was planned to replace How's Phytologia.
Merrett contributed articles on vegetable physiology to the Philosophical Transactions.  He published one medical work in 1682.  Also wrote The Art of Glass, 1662, contains a great deal about the preparation of chemical materials for glass.
Merrett's translation of Neri's book into The Art of Glass, with Merrett's considerable additions to it, is said to have helped the glass industry in England and indeed (through translations) elsewhere in northern Europe. Even though Merrett was not engaged personally in glass making, he made himself familiar with the operations in London glass works. He was also interested in metallurgy, and published an article on refining in the Philosophical Transactions.
Member: Royal Society, 1660--one of the original group.
Christopher Glaser (1615-1672). Swiss chemist, iatrochemist, pharmacologist. 
He became demonstrator of chemistry, as successor of Lefebvre, at the Jardin du Roi in Paris, and apothecary to Louis XIV and to the Duke of Orléans. Opened apothecary shop in Paris (c.1662); apothecary to Louis XIV of France; credited with discovery of potassium sulfate. Wrote textbook Traite de la chymie (1663). The mineral K3Na(SO4) 2 (Glaserite) is named after him.
Thomas Bartholin (1616-1680). Physician, pharmacologist. Lutheran.
Known for his observations of the lymphatics, was professor of mathematics (1646-48), of anatomy (1648-61), at Copenhagen; physician to King Christian V (1670-80); enlarged his father's Institutiones Anatomicae, and defended Harvey's doctrine of the circulation of the blood. 
Bartholin published many works on anatomy, physiology and medicine, from 1645 through 1674, and a general work on pharmacology in 1658.  In 1654, along with the rest of the medical faculty at the university, Bartholin published advice to the people on how to take care of themselves during the plague.  In 1673 he held the first exams for midwives in Denmark. Erasmus B. was his brother. Thomas's son Caspar, who was also an anatomist of importance, would follow at the university.
Francesco Redi (1626-1697). Italian physician, naturalist, and poet.
Credited with the birth of modern experimentation, Redi applied his enquiring, deductive mind and astute powers of observation to designing controlled experiments, the first of their type ever recorded. One magnificently contrived series of investigations led to the disproof of the centuries-old belief in spontaneous generation. Another, in what he called "unmasking of untruth," he discovered how vipers produce venom and inject it into their prey, and determined the venom's clotting effect on the the victim's blood. His ingenuity in designing these experiments has been compared to that of Louis Pasteur two hundred years later. His command of the written word also gained him fame in the literary world, primarily with his long poem published in 1685, Bacco in Toscana (Bacchus in Tuscany).
Thomas Millington (1628-1704).  English physiologist, anatomist.
Millington was a leading physician, active in the Oxford group of physiologists, pursuing both anatomical and physiological investigations. Thomas Sydenham held him in high regard.‪ ‬He was appointed physician in ordinary to William III and Mary II, and later to Queen Anne. Millington was knighted in 1679. Millington was one of the physicians to dissect William III's body.
Member: Medical College, Royal Society (original member). 
Johann Heinrich Glaser (1629-1679).  Swiss anatomist, physician.
In 1662, Glaser established a medical practice that soon brought him international fame.  In 1665, he became full professor of Greek.  In 1667, he was named Professor of anatomy and botany at the Faculté de Médecine at Basel.  He was named Doctor-in-chief at a large municipal hospital in Basel.
Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702). Swedish scientist. Professor.
Professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university. Rudbeck is primarily known for his contributions in two fields: human anatomy and linguistics, but he was also accomplished in many other fields including music and botany. (He established the first botanical garden in Sweden at Uppsala, called Rudbeck's Garden, but which was renamed a hundred years later for his son's student, the botanist Carolus Linnaeus.) Discovered the lymphatic system (1650); attempted to prove that the cradle of human culture and Plato's Atlantis were in Sweden. The botanical genus Rudbeckia is named for him.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723). Dutch tradesman and scientist. Dutch Reformed Calvinist.
Leeuwenhoek took to grinding his own lenses and making his own microscopes.  Perfecting a technique that raised the power to over 200x, he opened up a whole new world never before seen by man: the world of microorganisms. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist.
Leeuwenhoek's main discoveries are:
• the infusoria (protists in modern zoological classification), in 1674
• the bacteria, (e.g., large Selenomonads from the human mouth), in 1676
• the vacuole of the cell.
• the spermatozoa in 1677.
• the banded pattern of muscular fibers, in 1682.‪[note 4]‬
In 1687 he reported his research on the coffee bean. He roasted the bean, cut it into slices and saw a spongeous interior. The bean was pressed, and an oil appeared. He boiled the coffee with rain water twice, set it aside.‪[27]‬
It is clear that faith in God and a love for creation were the key influences behind his scientific work.
Johannes van Horne (1621-1670).  Dutch anatomist, surgeon.  Calvinist.
Although primarily interested in anatomy, Horne later lectured and published on surgery.  He was the first to describe the ductus chyliferus in man.  He prepared a anatomical atlas which was never published.  He investigated the ovaries with Swammerdam.  His introduction to anatomy was translated from its original Latin into Dutch, German, and French.
Robert Sharrock (c. 1630-1684).  English botanist.  Calvinist, Anglican.
Author of History of the Propagation and Improvement of Vegetables, 1660. The book indicates an experimental approach to botany and shows extensive knowledge of the cultivation of plants.  Note the word "Improvement" in the title of the book, a word which the extended continuing title emphasized. The final edition of it, after Sharrock's death, bore the title An Improvement to the Art of Gardening. Arber calls it a practical handbook for husbandmen and gardeners.
Sharrock was not primarily a scientist. He wrote as well on religion, law, and political philosophy. The Puritan authorities made him perpetual fellow of New College. He was an ordained minister in the Anglican Church after the Restoration.He became Archdeacon of Winchester, in the final year of his life.
Richard Lower (1631-1691).  English physician and physiologist.
Made first direct transfusion of blood from one animal to the veins of another (in dogs, 1665); studied cardiopulmonary system; published Tractatus de corde (1669).  Richard Lower was a pioneer in seventeenth century medicine because of his studies in experimental physiology. His observations about the circulation and transfusion of blood led to some of the most significant discoveries in the history of medicine. Lower studied at Westminster School and Christ Church College, Oxford, where he earned an M.A. in 1655 and an M.D. in 1665. He was named Sedleian professor of natural philosophy in 1660. He is still regarded as one of Oxford's finest doctors.
Lower is famous for his anatomical work on the brain and nerves, carried out as the assistant of Thomas Willis  in Oxford in the early 1660s, and for his own anatomical and physiological investigation of the structure and action of the heart, on which he published in 1669. He was also involved in the first experimental transfusions of blood into a human subject in 1666. He was one of the most skilled and accomplished vivisectionalists of his time.

Nicolaus Steno / Niels Steenson / Niels Stenson. (1638-1686). Danish naturalist, geologist and anatomist.
Steno (1638-1686) established the law of superposition and the law of constancy of interfacial angles.  He made discoveries in functions of the heart, brain, procreative and glandular systems; discovered (1660) the parotid salivary duct (also called Stensen's duct). In De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus (1669) he laid foundations of crystallography and proposed revolutionary idea that fossils are remains of ancient living organisms and many rocks are result of sedimentation, thus also laying foundations of geology and paleontology.  Royal anatomist at Copenhagen (1672-74); to Florence (1674); ordained Roman Catholic priest (1675); made apostolic vicar of northern Germany and Scandinavia and bishop of Titiopolis (1677).
Ann Lamont.  "Great Creation Scientists: Nicolas Steno, Founder of modern geology and young-Earth creationist," First published:  Creation 23(4):47-49,September 2001.   It is important to realize that Steno was not forced reluctantly into a 6,000-year timeframe by church dogma, as some evolutionary-minded historians claim. There was no recorded friction between Steno and any church authorities on the issue. Rather than church pressure, it was Steno's belief in a young Earth as described in the Bible that prompted his independent thinking on geology and fossils.

John Mayow (1641-1679). English physiologist and chemist.
Known for work on atmospheric composition, respiration, chemistry of combustion, and muscular action; his investigation (1674) of part played by spiritus nitroaerus in combustion is sometimes considered as discovery of oxygen.
Mayow, a member of a well-established family in Cornwall, studied at Oxford from which he received a bachelor's degree in 1665 and a doctorate in civil law in 1670. He also studied medicine, and although he received no degree in the field, Mayow entered medical practice for a short time after leaving Oxford. He spent much of the 1670s in London where he became acquainted with Robert Hooke, who recommended Mayow's election as fellow of the Royal Society in 1678.
Regnier de Graaf (1641-1673).  Dutch physician and anatomist.
He was one of the pioneers of experimental physiology. His studies involving pancreatic fluids, and later, the male and female reproductive systems, were the precursor to modern reproductive endocrinology.  Author of works on the pancreatic juice and on the generative organs; discovered the Graafian follicles in the ovary.
Nicolas Lémery (1645-1715). French chemist, pharmacologist. 
First to distinguish between vegetable (organic) and mineral (inorganic) chemistry. Adopted an atomic theory assuming that fundamental particles have characteristic shapes.  Discovered a commercial process for the production of sulfuric acid.  Obtained boric acid from borax.  Investigated chemistry of antimony sulfide.  Analyzed camphor and honey.
Lémery's chief contributions to pharmacy were his two complementary works, the Pharmacopée universelle (1697) and the Traité des drogues simples (1698). They represent a comprehensive dictionary of pharmaceuticals. His last major work, Traité de l'antimoine (1707), contains the results of his investigation into the properties and preparations of mineral antimony.  His textbook on chemistry, the Cours de chymie (Paris, 1675), went through more than thirty editions.
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1699-1715. Apothecary to the king (1674-81); noted teacher. Two sons both followed him into the Academy as chemists: Louis and Jacques.
Jean Mery (1645-1722).  French anatomist, surgeon, physiologist.  Catholic.
Most of Mery's work was comparative-anatomical and pathological. His pathological research was mostly concerned with human developmental malformations.  After 1684, he became associated with the comparative-anatomical work led by C. Perrault and Duverney.  In 1693, Mery was embroiled in a controversy over the traditional interpretation of mammalian fetal circulation. He based his theory on preserved and dry specimens which yielded inconsistent findings. Nevertheless, Mery held his views until his death.
Among his other anatomical works were his research on the ear following Lami; his description of the urethral glands before Cowper; and his description of the eustachian valve preceding that of Winslow.
He entered into the discussion of the vacuum.
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1684-1722.  Correspondence with Pascal. He had several disputes with Pascal on the existence of a vacuum. But later in his Gravitas he honored Pascal for his role in developing an experiment to produce a vacuum within a vacuum.
Clopton Havers (c. 1655-1702).  English anatomist, physiologist, physician.  Calvinist, Anglican.
Havers's thesis at Utrecht was De respiratione, 1685.  Osteologia nova, 1691 (a collection of five papers delivered earlier to the Royal Society), had the first description of the microscopic structure of bones, and a discussion of the physiology of bones.  He contributed a medical paper to the Philosophical Transactions. He dedicated Osteologia nova to the Earl of Pembroke, President of the Royal Society. Havers contracted to write an English text for Stephan Blankaart's anatomical plates.  He revised John Ireton's English text for John Remmelin's anatomical plates in 1695 and was composing the text to other anatomical plates when he died.
Member: Royal Society, 1686-1702; Medical College.  Granted an extra license in 1684 and a full license in 1687 by the Royal College of Physicians.
Giuseppe Zambeccari (1655-1728).  Italian scientist, physiologist, anatomist.  Catholic.
Zambeccari experimented on dogs, removing organs in order to understand the function they performed in the living animal- -the spleen, for example. Sometime after the organ was removed, he would kill the dog and dissect it in order to attempt to observe what changes had resulted.  He developed a general, iatromechanical physiology of the nerves in "Concerning Sleep . . .", a manuscript unpublished in his own day.
After completing his medical degree, Zambeccari lived in Florence with Redi for a couple of years and worked with him, and to Redi he dedicated his Experiments Concerning the Excision of Various Organs, 1680. From letters by Redi it appears that he was instrumental in Zambeccari's appointment in Pisa, and later of his promotion. He knew Guido Grandi and corresponded with him.
William Sherard (1659-1728).  English botanist, natural historian.
Sherard collected plants in the Alps, in Italy, Greece, and Anatolia, and in Cornwall and Jersey; from his expeditions he furnished lists that John Ray utilized in his works.  He published Schola botanica, a list of plants in the Jardin du Roi in Paris, 1689, and Paul Hermann's Paradisus batavus, 1698.  About 1695 he began a revision of Bauhin's Pinax on which he worked for the rest of his life, though he never finished or published it.
Positions: Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, 1683-1703; Tutor to Sir Arthur Rawdon, 1690-4, in Ireland; Tutor to Charles, Viscount Townsend, 1694; Tutor to the eldest son of Lord Russell, 1697-9; Tutor to Henry, Duke of Beaufort, 1700-02.
Member: Royal Society, 1718. Council, 1719, 1720. 
Georg Ernst Stahl / George Ernst Stahl (1660-1734).  German physician and chemist. 
Founder of the phlogiston theory of combustion, he also developed a theory of medicine based upon vitalistic ideas.  Professor at Halle (1694-1715); physician in Berlin to King Frederick William (1715-34); using Johann Becher's theories of combustion, originated phlogiston theory to explain combustion; enunciated in Theoria medica vera (1707) doctrine of vitalism.
Stahl retired from academic life in 1716 to take up appointment as physician to King Frederick I of Prussia. He held this post until his death on May 14, 1734.
Don B. DeYoung, Ph.D. "Creation and Early Medicine," Creation Matters, May/June 2001:
"George Ernst Stahl greatly influenced eighteenth-century medicine. He correctly taught that many ailments were being attributed to wrong causes. Stahl stated that normal blood circulation was essential to maintaining good health. Today it is difficult to realize how revolutionary this idea was. The son of a minister, Stahl was a devout Pietist who lived in Europe. He taught that no one could fully explain such details as the extent of the heavens, or why so many different animal species exist. In his view these answers existed only in the mind and will of God."
Antonio Pacchioni (1665-1726). Italian anatomist.
He focused chiefly on the outermost meningeal layer of the brain, the dura mater. Paccioni's granulations (or pacchionian bodies), where the arachnoid layer protrudes through the dura, are named for him (although they are now generally known as arachnoid granulations). Lived in Rome from 1691 to 1694. First attending the Santo Spirito Hopital, he was assistant physician at the Ospedale della Conzolazione from May 26, 1690 to June 3, 1693, and then remained for six years in Tivoli as the town doctor. His first dissertation on this dates from 1701 on, the most important being Dissertatio epistolaris de glandular.
Rudolf Jakob Camerarius / Rudolf Jakob Camerer (1665-1721). German physician and botanist.
Professor at Tubingen (from 1688); demonstrated sexuality in plants (reported 1694).  Camerarius attended the University of Tubingen, where he studied philosophy and medicine. He earned his B.A. in 1679, the M.A. in 1682, and his M.D. in 1687.  In 1688, he was appointed Professor Extraordinary of Medicine and Director of the Botanical Garden at Tubingen. From 1689-95, Camerarius served as Professor of Natural Philosophy. When his father died in 1695, he succeeded him to the title of Full Professor and First Professor of the University. When Camerarius died in 1721, his son succeeded him to the professorship.
John Freind (1675-1728).  English physician, chemist, physiologist.  Anglican.
Freind began to publish articles on medicine in the Philosophical Transactions in 1699, while still a student. His chemical lectures at Oxford in 1704 were published in 1709 as Praelectiones chymicae--an application of the Newtonian concept of attractions to mechanical chemistry.
As a physician Freind wrote on medical topics--e.g., Emmenologiae, 1703, which expounds a mechanistic physiology. Mostly he wrote on therapeutics--e.g, Hippocrates de morbis popularibus, 1716. His History of Physick, 1725-6, was perhaps his major work; it expounds Freind's ideas on medicine in the process of writing its history.
Member: Royal College of Physicians, 1716-1728.
Stephen Hales (1677-1761). English scientist and clergyman.
Stephen Hales pioneered the study of plant physiology, investigated role of gases in plant metabolism, made early studies of sap circulation in plants, contributed the first major account of blood pressure, and invented a machine for ventilating buildings. Author of Vegetable Staticks (1727), credited with inaugurating the science of plant physiology, Haemastaticks (1733), which developed the work of William Harvey by describing the pressure and velocity of blood in the veins. In 1739 Hales had received the Royal Society's Copley Medal for his investigations of the complaint known as 'the stone'. He spent a great deal of time trying to develop a solvent for stones in the bladder and the kidneys and actually devised a method of extracting stones from the bladder.
Honor: Copley Prize, 1739.
Louis Lémery (1677-1743).  French chemist, anatomist, physiologist.  Son of Nicolas Lemery.
The bulk of Lémery's scientific writings, which deal mainly with problems of chemical analysis, were published in the Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences. His most important observations on organic analysis are contained in four papers published in 1719-1721. His anatomical papers deal with the circulation of the blood in the fetal heart and with the origin of monaters. In addition to his Academy memoirs, he published two monographs, Traité des alimens (1702) and Dissertation sur la nourriture des os (1704). Was appointed physician at the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris in 1710. The son of scientist Nicolas Lemery.
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1712-1743.  He was sous-directeur in 1716 and 1717.
Gabriel-Philippe de La Hire [Philippe II] (1677-1719).  French astronomer, engineer, physician, anatomist, meteorologist, architect, cartographer, instrument maker, specialist in mechanical devices.  Catholic.
La Hire assisted his father Laurent de la Hire in his regular observations at the Paris Observatory. His first solo work was the establishment of the Ephemerides for 1701, 1702, and 1703. The following year he presented several short memoires to the Académie on subjects ranging from observational and physical astronomy to applied science and medicine.
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1694-1719.
Magnus von Bromell (1679-1731).  Swedish anatomist, surgeon.  Anatomist.  Mining engineer.  Paleontologist.  Botanist.  Lutheran.
Magnus Bromelius, ennobled Von Bromell, born in Stockholm in 1679, died in 1731, was a Swedish physician and paleontologist. He was the son of the physician and botanist Olof Bromelius and Agnes Svinhufvud af Qvalstad. In 1713, he became a medical assistant at the University of Uppsala, where he also taught natural history and botany. He started dissecting and studied humans as well as animals, birds, fish, and reptiles. In 1716 he was elected professor of medicine in Uppsala, but was soon called to Stockholm by the King, or to be more explicit ordered by the King, to be as professor of anatomy.
1720 named assessor of the chemical laboratory of the Board of Mines and in 1724 superintendent of the laboratory and president of the Lappis Mines.
Pier' Antonio Micheli (1679-1737).  Italian botanist, natural historian, paleontologist, mineralogist, geologist, zoologist, pharmacologist, metallurgist, agriculturalist.  The father of mycology - the study of fungi.
In his major work, Nova plantarum genera (Florence, 1729), Micheli considered some 1900 species, of which nearly 1400 were new. The work remained unfinished at the time of his death (in the sense that he continued to collect more material), and a considerable amount of the data that he had gathered was never incorporated into it.
Micheli was an outstanding representative of a new phenonenon, the specialist in certain groups of plants--for Micheli the ombrellifers, gramineae, mosses, fungi, and marine algae.  In addition to his botanical studies, he was also concerned with zoology (especially fish or, better, sea life), paleontology, and geology. He was the first to recognize Monte Amiata as an extinct volcano far from regions still active volcanically. He explored the minerals of Tuscany.

Gaspare Aselli (1581-1625). Italian physician and anatomist.

Discovered the lacteal vessels of the intestine while dissecting a dog (1622). Aselli discovered (or rediscovered) the chylous vessels, and studied systematically the significance of these vascular structures.
He was born in Cremona, and became professor of anatomy and surgery at the university of Pavia. He later practised medicine in Milan, where he died. His description of the lacteals, De lactibus sive Lacteis venis, was published in 1627 at Milan.

Federico Cesi (1585-1630).  Italian botanist, pharmacologist, specialist in scientific organization.  Catholic.
Cesi will always be remembered primarily for his Accademia dei Lincei, which is often cited as the first modern scientific society.  He made the principal function of the Accademia the preparation of a precis of the Spanish physician, Francisco Hernandez's Nova plantarum et mineralium mexicanorum historia (a work referred to under various titles, in one of which the word thesaurus is central) for publication. A preliminary version of this was published in 1628; the complete version appeared only in 1651, more than twenty years after Cesi's death. It contained Cesi's own Phytosophicae tabulae, a pioneer effort at a classification of plants. Using a microscope (which he received from Galileo), Cesi discovered the spores of cryptogams.  The final table (of the Phytosophicae tabulae) concerned the medicinal uses of plants. Cesi was a leading simpler of the age, and his herb garden was known as one of the best in Italy.
Giuseppe degli Aromatari (1587-1660).  Italian botanist, physician.
Aromatari is remembered today for his hypothesis of the preformation of the germ in seeds. The hypothesis was published in the two-page Epistola de generatione plantarum ex seminibus (1625), which immediately made him famous and established his priority on the doctrine of the preformation of the germ. He also investigated the so-called permeability of the interventricular septum of the heart, but on this subject no writing exists.  He also wrote on rabies.
Cesare Magati (1579-1647).  Italian surgeon.  Catholic. In 1619 Magati joined the Capuchin order.
He is particularly remembered for De rara medicatione vulnerum (1616), which discusses the theory and method of healing wounds. He also wrote another work on this subject, replying to an attack by Sennert. Magati was a conservative physician who held to the tradition of Galen and Hippocrates. Within those limits he emphasized that the function of the physician was to assist nature, the ultimate source of cure, as much as possible by obstructing her as little as possible with excessive medication and treatment. For this he is remembered as a fundamental reformer of surgery.
Magati also left behind a manuscript De re medica. An important consultation on syphilis survives, as well as a writing on the plague.
Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.
Johann Baptista Van Helmont (1579-1644) of Brussels studied several subjects before finally choosing to follow a career in medicine. He became a medical chemist as well as an ardent follower of Paracelsus. The chemical side of medicine finally took over from the medical side and he devoted much of his life to chemical experiments. He has been described as the last alchemist and the first chemist, because although he believed in alchemy, including the production of gold from lead which he claimed to have performed, his emphasis upon experiment rather than argument is a great advance.
Saint Vincent de Paul (24 April 1581 – 27 September 1660) was a priest of the Catholic Church who dedicated himself to serving the poor. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He was canonized in 1737.‪[1]‬ De Paul was renowned for his compassion, humility, and generosity and is known as the "Great Apostle of Charity". The fostering of modern nursing began with the work of Vincent de Paul and the French women associated with him in hospital reforms and in the creation of the Sisters of Charity. From the labors of St. Vincent came also the main structure of modern methods in dealing with the many-sided problems of destitution and relief.
St. Vincent's study of social conditions, and his reflections, brought him to a most advanced point of view for his times. Indeed, many of his advanced beliefs were then considered revolutionary. He was convinced that poverty could be abolished. Even in his day organized charities had come to that doctrine that poverty was regarded as a divine chastisement, or, at least, a spiritual discipline. He advocated thorough education for the young, including manual training and the teaching of skilled trades. To deal with beggary, at that time a real social pest, he would have farm colonies formed, and offenders classified, giving each one the work that he was able to do. To meet this need in the simplest way, St. Vincent brought young country girls to live in the home of the Dames cle Charité, and to go with them to work in the hospitals under their supervision. This was so successful that in 1633 a group of these young women was placed in charge of Mile. ie Gras, who had been one of Vincent's first co-workers. In a little house on a quiet street in Paris they lived, and so developed the order of the Sisters of Charity, perhaps the most widely spread and best beloved of all nursing orders.
Nicolaes Tulp (1593-1674).  Dutch physician, anatomist, pharmacologist, zoologist.  Calvinist.
A Dutch surgeon and mayor of Amsterdam. Tulp was well known for his upstanding moral character and as the subject of Rembrandt's famous painting The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp. Tulp's Observationum medicarum libri tres, 1641, contains 228 case histories.  He proposed the first pharmacopoeia of the Netherlands and apparently supplied most of its contents.  He first described the chimpanzee scientifically.  The Amsterdam Medical College was organized to enforce the decree that demanded sole use of Tulp's pharmacopoeia.
Jan Marek Marci of Kronland (1595-1667).  Bohemian physician, mechanic, optician, mathematician.  Catholic.
"Jan Marek Marci of Kronland, in Latin Johannes Marcus Marci (1595--1677), was a doctor and scientist in Bohemia (present Czech Republic). He spent most of his career as a professor of Charles University in Prague, where he served as Dean of the medical school and Rector. He was also personal doctor of Emperors Ferdinand III and Leopold I, and distinguished himself in the defense of Prague against the Swedish armies in 1648. His studies covered the mechanics of colliding bodies, epilepsy, and the refraction of light, among other topics."
Marci's most important work was accomplished in medicine and physics. The De proportione motus (1639) contained his theory of the collision of bodies and gave an account of the experiments whereby he reached it. He also carried out research in optics, setting down most of his results in Thaumantias liber de arcu coelesti (1648). Also Disssertatio de natura iridis (1650).
His medical works involved philosophical as well as theological problems. He was a follower of the school of Paracelsus. He renewed the idea that an organic body develops from a semen. The powers of a creative spirit are put into individuals by God in the process of creating the world. Every individual can renew himself. In all, a Platonic-Stoic conception of nature close to van Helmont and Leibniz. He devoted particular attention to questions of what would now be termed neurology, physiology and psychophysiology, in treatises that have not yet been fully evaluated. He also tried to adopt a purely medical approach to disease and to analyze critically both previous descriptions of epileptic fits and existing theories of their origin.
Author: Idearum operaticum idea,1636; Philosophia vetus restitute, 1662; Othosophia seu philosophia impulsus universalis, 1683; De longitudine seu differentia inter duos meridianos, 1650.
Nicolas Marchant (Birth unknown-1678).  French botanist.  Pharmacologist.  Father of Jean Marchant.
Marchant devoted the last ten years of his life to the preparation of the Histoire des plantes, undertaken in 1667 by the Académie. He prepared a large number of descriptions for this project which was never published, being abandoned by the Academy in 1694. He collaborated in editing the Mémoire pour servir à l'histoire des plantes (1676). He was the first botanist to take up the study of lower plants.
Member: Founding member, Académie Royal des Sciences, 1666-78.
Simon Paulli (1603-1680).  Swedish botanist, anatomist, physician, geographer, educator.
Paulli made notable contributions to the technical literature of anatomy and botany. His major work is Quadripartitum botanicum de simplicium medicamentorum facultatibus (Rostock, 1640), in which he arranged plants according to the seasons, in the form of a floral almanac.  He also published works on medicine and geography.  He is known more as a medical practioner than as a theorist, in part because of his recommendation of simple medications.
Paulli (1603-1680) was physician to the Danish kings Frederik III and Christian V, and was professor of anatomy, surgery, and botany at Copenhagen. 'Paulli made notable contributions to the technical literature of anatomy and botany. His botanical writings were discussed in detail by Albrecht von Haller, who praised him not only for compiling existing botanical knowledge but also for comparing it with information derived from his own experiments' (ibid). He was also the author of the first Danish flora, Flora Danica (Copenhagen, 1648).
The Continuatio appendicis, which is missing from most copies, contains a comprehensive index and list of authors cited in the main work.
Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679). Italian physicist and physiologist.
Professor, Messina (1649-56, 1667-74), Pisa (1656-67). In Del movimento della cometa (1665), published under pseudonym Pier Maria Mutoli, first suggested parabolic path for celestial object; postulated attractive force in Theorica mediceorum planetarum (1666) on motion of Jupiter's satellites; founded iatrophysical school with attempt to explain movements of animal bodies on mechanical principles in De mota animalium (1680-81).
Nicaise Le Febvre (c. 1610-1669).  French pharmacologist, iatrochemist.  Calvinist.
Le Febvre's principal contribution to science is his textbook, the Traité de la chymie (Paris, 1660). His other published work was a description of a polypharmaceutical preparation. In the tradition of iatrochemistry, the Traité was directed to medicinal preparations.
Memberships: Royal Society, 1663-1669.  He was admitted on the nomination of Sir Robert Moray.
William Johnson (c. 1610-1665).  English iatrochemist, pharmacologist.  Anglican.
Johnson was considered an iatrochemist, though he was at odds with other English iatrochemists. He published Three Exact Pieces of Leonard Piorovant, 1652, and in that same year Lexicon chemicum, drawn from Ruland, Basil Valentine, and Van Helmont. Though an iatrochemist, as an employee of the College of Physicians he wrote a defense of Galenic pharmacology (Some Brief Animadversions, 1665) against the attack of George Thomson.
Willem Piso (1611-1678).  Dutch physician, pharmacologist, natural historian, botanist.
Willem Piso accompanied Governor Johann Moritz von Nassau to Brazil, and was physician to the Dutch settlement there from 1633 to 1644. He made an extensive study of the native materia medica, while his colleague Markgraf compiled an eight-volume manuscript on the natural history of the region. Markgraf, however, died in 1643, and part of his work was published, along with Piso's, by de Laet in 1648, an edition hastily put together and full of errors. Piso was unhappy with the 1648 edition, and took this opportunity to correct its many errors, remove the interpolations, add or replace woodcuts, expand his commentary, as well as adding additional tracts. He also incorporated Markgraf's writings into his own text.
From Piso's period in Brasil came the Historia naturalis Brasiliae (of which four of twelve books were by Piso and eight by Markgraf), a compendium of tropical medicine, pharmacology (including the introduction of a Brasilian root into European use), and natural history.
Member: Medical College; Amsterdam Collegium Medicum, of which Piso was decanus in 1656-60 and 1670.
Nathaniel Highmore (1613-1685).  English anatomist, embryologist, physiologist, botanist, physician.  Anglican.
Corporis humani disquisitio anatomica, 1651, Highmore's most important work, was the first anatomical textbook to accept the circulation of the blood. In it he described the antrum of Highmore, which (obviously) still bears his name.  The History of Generation, 1651, was the result of Highmore's collaboration with Harvey in Oxford. It contains references to a microscope, which he (in contrast to Harvey) may have used in embryology. This work also has important observations of plants.  Both of his major works in 1651 contain a great amount of physiology. The Disquisitio clothes anatomy in the physiology of circulation.
Highmore wrote a number of medical works--Discourse of the Cure of Wounds by Sympathy, 1651 (printed with History of Generation); De passione hysterica et de affectionae hypochondriaca, 1660 (a work which engaged Highmore in a controversy with Willis ); Short Treatise . . . of Dysenteria, 1658; papers in the Philosophical Transcations (though Harvey was not a fellow), including one on the medicinal springs in East Somerset.
Thomas Wharton (1614-1673).  English anatomist, physiologist.
Won great fame as an anatomist. He was one of the few physicians who continued to work in London during the Great Plague of 1665, deciding to stay and attend his own patients and the poor of St Thomas's Hospital. His resolution wavered when the disease reached its height and most of the profession had left for the country, but he was persuaded to stay with the promise from the Government that he would receive the first vacant position of physician-in-ordinary to the King. Wharton was the author of Adenographia, 1656, the first thorough and comprehensive account of all the glands in the body, with research into their functions. He discovered the duct of the submaxillary salivary gland and the jelly of the umbilical cord, both of which are named for him. He gave the first adequate account of the thyroid gland, which he named.
Member: Royal College of Physicians, 1650; Censor 6 times, 1658- 73. Gulstonian Lecturer, 1654.  Informal Connections: Professional relationship with John French, Thomas Frapham, Francis Glisson, George Ent, Francis Prujean, Edward Emily and others.
Associated eponyms: Wharton's duct, The duct of the submandibular salivary gland opening into the mouth at side of the frenum linguae; Wharton's jelly, A gelatinous intercellular substance which is the primitive mucoid connective tissue of the umbilical cord.

Franciscus dele Bo Sylvius (1614-1672).  Physician.
Franciscus dele Bo Sylvius, the first physician in the Netherlands to defend that the blood circulated in the vessels.  Franciscus Sylvius also wrote a descriptive treatise on the natural history of pulmonary tuberculosis that became a classic in late Renaissance Europe. He was one of the earliest defenders of the theory of circulation of the blood in the Netherlands, and commonly falsely cited as the inventor of gin.
In 1669 Sylvius founded the first academic chemical laboratory .[citation needed] For this reason, the building in which much of the Leiden University chemistry and natural science faculties are housed has the name Sylvius Laboratory. His most famous students were Jan Swammerdam, Reinier de Graaf, Niels Stensen and Burchard de Volder.
He founded the Iatrochemical School of Medicine, according to which all life and disease processes are based on chemical actions. That school of thought attempted to understand medicine in terms of universal rules of physics and chemistry. Sylvius also introduced the concept of chemical affinity as a way to understand the way the human body uses salts and contributed greatly to the understanding of digestion and of bodily fluids. The most important work he published was Praxeos medicae idea nova (New Idea in Medical Practice, 1671).

He researched the structure of the brain and was credited as the discoverer of the cleft in the brain known as Sylvian fissure by Caspar Bartholin in his 1641 book Casp. Bartolini Institutiones Anatomicae‪[5]‬ In this book, it is noted that in the preface that "We can all measure the nobility of Sylvius's brain and talent by the marvelous, new structure of the brain" And also, "In the new images of the brain, the engraver followed the design and scalpel of the most thorough Franciscus Sylvius, to whom we owe, in this part, everything that the brain has the most, or the most wonderful of".

Nicholas Culpeper (18 October 1616 – 10 January 1654) English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer.
His published books include The English Physician (1652) and the Complete Herbal (1653), which contain a rich store of pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge, and Astrological Judgement of Diseases from the Decumbiture of the Sick (1655), which is one of the most detailed documents we have on the practice of medical astrology in Early Modern Europe.
Culpeper spent the greater part of his life in the English outdoors cataloging hundreds of medicinal herbs. He criticized what he considered the unnatural methods of his contemporaries, writing: "This not being pleasing, and less profitable to me, I consulted with my two brothers, DR. REASON and DR. EXPERIENCE, and took a voyage to visit my mother NATURE, by whose advice, together with the help of Dr. DILIGENCE, I at last obtained my desire; and, being warned by MR. HONESTY, a stranger in our days, to publish it to the world, I have done it."
Walter Charleton (1619-1707) Physician.  Natural philosopher and historian, physiologist, anatomist.  President of the Royal College of Physicians.
Charleton's most important work was in general natural philosophy. He entered the world of learning as a disciple of van Helmont (Spiritus gongonicus, a Helmontian theory of the formation of stones in the human body, and A Ternary of Paradoxes, mostly a translation from Helmont, both in 1650. Then three works in the atomist tradition: The Darkness of Atheism, 1652; Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charletoniana, 1654; The Immortality of the Human Soul [sic], 1657; The Natural History of Nutrition, Life and Voluntary Motion, 1659, was one of the first books in English on physiology; Onomasticon zoicon, 1668, was a work more or less in taxonomy.  He also published some anatomical lectures and Onomasticon contained anatomies of two animals that he had dissected.
Member: Royal Society, 1660-1707.  Royal College of Physicians, 1650-1707; President, 1689-91. Charleton was a Candidate in 1650, an Honorary Fellow in 1664 (a status that allowed him to pay dues and to practice), and ordinary Fellow in 1676.
Pierre Borel (c. 1620-1671).  Physician, botanist, chemist, pharmacologist.
Borel is credited with the first description of brain concussions. Among his original contributions to medicine are the statement that cataract is a darkening of the crystalline lens and the recommendation of the use of concave mirrors in diagnostic examination of nose and throat.
He also wrote books on history of science.  His Horyus (1667) listed plants with known uses in medicine. He pioneered the use of concave mirrors in the examination of noses, throats, etc.
Calvinist.  He was evidently the regent of the Huguenot college of Castres. His death was entered in a Huguenot register.Borel is credited with the first description of brain concussions. Among his original contributions to medicine are the statement that cataract is a darkening of the crystalline lens and the recommendation of the use of concave mirrors in diagnostic examination of nose and throat. He also wrote books on history of science.  His Horyus (1667) listed plants with known uses in medicine. He pioneered the use of concave mirrors in the examination of noses, throats, etc.
Calvinist.  He was evidently the regent of the Huguenot college of Castres. His death was entered in a Huguenot register.
Melchisédech Thévenot (c. 1620-1692).  French pharmacologist, instrument-maker, physicist, scientific communicator and organizer.
Thévenot was one of the important correspondents linking Paris to the European scientific world. He organized his own academy in the early 60's, and he influenced the founding of the French Academy of Sciences.
His only notable direct contribution to science was in instrumentation: a bubble level, originally designed in 1661. The level was filled with alcohol and mounted on a stone ruler fitted with a viewing lens. His design did not come into common use until the mid-eighteenth century with the development of improved construction techniques. From 1658-61 he conducted experiments on capillarity and the siphon. He made various astronomical and magnetic studies aided by Petit, Auzout, Frenicle de Bessy, and Huygens. In the 1660's he demonstrated the possibility that atmospheric pulsations had something to do with human and animal respiration.  His most famous work was his collection of translations of voyages of discovery, Relations de divers voyages curieus, (Paris, 1663-72).
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1685-92. At the meetings of the Académie he discussed the use of lemon juice as a medicinal cure and ipecac as useful in treating dysentary.
Johann-Jakob Wepfer (1620-1695).  Swiss physician, anatomist, pharmacologist.
What Fischer calls his masterwork, his study of the poison in hemlock (1679), was pharmacological in nature. Because of this work, Fischer calls Wepfer the father of experimental toxicology and pharmacology. The content of the work stretches far beyond hemlock to consider all sorts of poisonous plants. And elsewhere he carried out similar experiments on mineral poisons, in which he warned against the use of such things as arsenic, antimony, and mercury as medicines.
Membership: Academia Leopoldina, 1685.  He published in the Miscellanea curiosa of the Leopoldina. Wepfer carried on a very extensive correspondence with the leading medical scientists from the Germanic area of his day.
Claude Bourdelin (c. 1621-1699).  French chemist.  Pharmacologist.
Bourdelin's importance lies in his having made clear to some of his contemporaries and to his successors that progress in chemical knowledge required use of less antiquated experimental methods and the elaboration of hypotheses as guidelines for research.  He spent more than 30 years on research in chemical analysis. He practiced medicine as an apothecary, a common arrangement in that age.
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1666-1699.  He was a member apparently from the original organization of the Académie, working with DuClos on the analysis of Royal mineral water.
Jean Pecquet (1622-1674). French physician and anatomist.
Credited with discovery of course of lacteal vessels, of the cistern chyli (or reservoir of Pecquet), and of the termination of the thoracic duct at the opening into the left subclavian vein.
In 1651, based on animal dissections, Pecquet described the thoracic duct, its entry into the subclavian veins, and the receptaculum chyli. He attributed the movement of the lymph to respiratory movement, transmitted pulsation from nearby arteries, and compression by contracting muscle outside the ducts.

Thomas Sydenham (1624–1689), English physician who is considered "the father of English medicine" and has been dubbed "The English Hippocrates".
He was the author of Observationes Medicae which became a standard textbook of medicine for two centuries. Among his many achievements was the discovery of a disease, Sydenham's Chorea, also known as St Vitus Dance. Dr. Thomas Sydenham [1624-1689], the 'English Hippocrates', was on record as saying: 'I had rather undertake the practice of physick with pure air, pure water and good food alone than with all the drugs in the Pharmacopoeia.' He also said: 'Do not despond for medicine. I leave you with three great physicians - air, water, exercise.'

A founder of clinical medicine and epidemiology. Served in parliamentary forces in Civil War. Described scarlet fever, St. Vitus' dance (Sydenham's chorea), hysteria, malaria, smallpox, and gout; introduced opium into medical practice; one of first to use iron in treating anemia; studied epidemics in relation to different seasons, years, and ages; insisted on clinical observation instead of theory; Introduced use of quinine; invented liquid laudanum.  Friend of John Locke and Robert Boyle; chief works Observationes medicae (1676) and a treatise on gout (1683).  Because he reintroduced into medicine the Hippocratic method of accurate bedside observation and the use of these observations in the classification and treatment of disease, he became known as the "English Hippocrates."
Associated eponyms: Sydenham's chorea, An infectious disease of the central nervous system, appearing after a streptococcal infection, with subsequent rheumatic fever, characterised by involuntary purposeless contractions of the muscles of the trunk and extremities.  

Olaus Borrichius / Olaus Borch (1626-1690).  Chemist.  Alchemist.  Physician.  Botanist.  Metallurgist.  Pharmacologist.  Lutheran.
Borrichius won fame as a physician during 1654 plaguge epidemic.  In 1655, he became tutor to the sons of Joachim Gersdorf, the lord high steward (Rigshofmester).  He was royal physician to Frederik III and Christian V.  In 1660, Borrichius was appointed Professor ordinarius of philology and professor extraordinarius of botany and chemistry (these were supernumerary until 1664); held these posts for nearly 30 years. 
Author: Docimastice metallica, 1667, (translated into many languages), which expounded the method of analyzing the most important metals; Metalischer Probierkunst, 1680; De usu plantarum indigenarum in medicina, 1688, a popular textbook with detailed demonstrations of how to heal common illnesses with the help of domestic plants.
Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694). Italian anatomist and microscopist.
Marcello Malpighi used the newly invented microscope to make a number of important discoveries about living tissues and structures.  He discovered capillaries; founded sciences of histology (the study of tissues), embryology, plant anatomy, comparative anatomy.  Professor at Pisa (1656-59) and Messina (1662-66); personal physician to Pope Innocent XII (1691). Because of early use of microscope in biological studies, called founder of microscopic anatomy; studied structure of secreting glands; discovered capillary circulation in the lung of the frog (1661), the deeper portion of the epidermis known as the Malpighian layer, loops ofcapillaries (or Malpighian tufts) in the kidney, and masses of adenoid tissue (or Malpighian corpuscles) in the spleen; described taste buds, structure of human lung, development of the chick, structure of the brain and spinal cord, and the metamorphosis of the silkworm.
An Italian scientist and physician who studied tissues and organs microscopically and is considered the founder of microanatomy. He related anatomy and physiology to medicine, including detailed structure of lungs, kidneys, spleen, and other organs, and the capillary circulation in frogs (1660). He later studied the structure of plants and animals and may have referred to cells when he spoke of "globules" and "saccules" (1661). He discovered the existence of blood capillaries, whose existence had been hypothesized by William Harvey about 30 years earlier. In addition, he studied the development of organs of chick embryos and erroneously concluded that the adult was preformed in a miniature form in the egg.
Valentine Greatrakes (14 February 1628 – 28 November 1682), also known as "Greatorex" or "The Stroker", was an Irish faith healer who toured England in 1666, claiming to cure people by the laying on of hands. By 1665 Greatrakes was conducting a regular 'surgery' for twelve hours a day three days a week, and had been forced to build extensions to his house to accommodate the waiting sufferers. A man of independent means, he rarely accepted payment for his services. Although he was reprimanded by an ecclesiastical court, the Stroker's reputation spread to London, and whole shiploads of sufferers soon crossed the Irish Sea to seek his services. In England, even men of the caliber of Andrew Marvell, John Evelyn and Robert Boyle - the 'sceptical chemist' and reviser of the pharmacopoeia, were impressed by his powers. Greatrakes did not claim to be infallible but there is reliable documentation for cures of ailments ranging from blindness to fistulas, and Greatrakes' modesty and sincerity were never questioned. More than one observer remarked on the impression he gave of strength combined with grace and gentleness.
Martin Lister (1632-1712). English naturalist and physician.
Lister was born at Radclive, near Buckingham. He was nephew of Sir Matthew Lister, physician to Anne, queen of James I., and to Charles I. He was educated at St Johns College, Cambridge, 1655, graduated in 1638/9, and was elected a Fellow in 1660. He became F.R.S. in 1671. He practiced medicine at York until 1683, when he removed to London. In 1684 he received the degree of M.D. at Oxford, and in 1687 became F.R.C.P. He contributed numerous articles on natural history, medicine and antiquities to the Philosophical Transactions. His principal works were Historiae animalium A ngliae tres tractatus (f678); Historiae Conch yliorum (1685 1692), and Conchyliorum Bivalvium (1696). As a conchologist he was held in high esteem, but while he recognized the similarity of fossil mollusca to living forms, he regarded them as inorganic imitations produced in the rocks. In 1683 he communicated to the Royal Society (Phil. Trans., 1684), An ingenious proposal for a new sort of maps of countries; together with tables of sands and clays, such as are chiefly found in the north parts of England. In this essay he suggested the preparation of a soil or mineral map of the country, and thereby is justly credited with being the first to realize the importance of a geological survey.
Giacinto Cestoni / Diacinto Cestoni (1637-1718).  Italian natural historian, entomologist, microscopist, pharmacologist, zoologist, physician.  Catholic.
Cestoni was a natural historian devoted to detailed observation--e.g., of the metamorphic cycle of the flea. He was interested in the generation of insects. In connection with his observations in entomology, he discovered (or discovered in connection with the Livornese physician Bonono) the acarid etiology of mange. Cestoni used the microscope systematically. He did experimental work on pharmacology, and his observations in natural history included things like shell fish and chameleons. The estimation of Cestoni seems to be constantly rising, and some historians are even touting him as the most important Italian scientist (perhaps they mean in the field of the life sciences) in Italy during his age.
Cestoni was in Rome in the service of a pharmacist, 1650-56; working for a pharmacist in Livorno, 1656-60. He traveled partly outside of Italy much of this time, although he was back in Livorno with the pharmacist part of this time. For about four months he worked for a pharmacist in Geneva, 1660-66.  He settled as a pharmacist in Livorno where he spent the rest of his life.  Cestoni is called a skillful surgeon as well as a pharmacist, and the epigraph on his tomb called him a physician.
William Croone (1633-1684).  English physiologist, physician, embryologist, anatomist, physicist.  Anglican.
Croone was especially interested in muscular action and embryology. He published De ratione motus musculorum in 1664, and in 1672 read a paper , "De formatione pulli in ovo," (radically preformationist) to the Royal Society in 1672. He gave reports to the Royal Society on a range of physiological questions. He lectured on anatomy to the Barber Surgeons for years, and also pursued some comparative anatomy.  As an experimenter he was associated with Boyle's study of pressure and volume in air. Croone discovered, and demonstrated experimentally, that water has its maximum density above the freezing point.  He carried out systematic observations of the weather with crude thermometers and hygroscopes and with barometers.
Member: Medical College, Royal Society, 1660-84. Croone was one of the original members.
Robert Hooke (1635-1703). English scientist involved in many disciplines including microscopy, mechanics, architecture, navigation, cartography  and instrumentation.
Hooke's first publication was a pamphlet on capillary action in 1661.  Micrographia, 1665, the first important set of observations with the microscope, included a theory of light. Micrographia also contained a theory of combustion with the analogy to respiration. Hooke performed experiments about respiration on dogs for the Royal Society. He was very important in the development of all sorts of instruments, not only the microscope, and his writings on method stress the importance of instruments as aids to the senses. Some of the instruments shade into mechanical devices--the first dividing engine, the first spiral gear (to adjust the setting of telescopes), the universal joint, the iris diaphragm, a lense grinding machine.  Hook was involved in the work of rebuilding London city after the Great Fire as a surveyor and architect.  He was architect of the Royal College of Physicians, Bethlehem (Bedlam) Hospital, the Monument, and a number of private houses including Montague House. 
Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680). Anatomist.
Dutch naturalist, skilled in the art of microdissection and was a founder of comparative anatomy and entomology.  Swammerdam was known for his biological researches with the microscope; first to describe the red blood cells (1658); discovered the valves of the lymph vessels (1664); studied the anatomy of insects, which he classified on the basis of development; devised improved techniques for injecting wax and dyes into cadavers; described ovarian follicles of mammals independently of Reiner de Graaf (1672). Chief works Historia insectorum generalis (1669) and Bybel der Natuure (1737-38).
Pierre Magnol (1638-1715). French physician and botanist.
Originated classification of plants by families; works included Prodromus historiae generalis plantarum (1689) and Novus caracter plantarum (1720). The genus Magnolia was named after him. One of the greatest botanists of the 17th century and demonstrator of plants and later director at the Montpellier botanical garden, made important contributions towards a "natural" classification of plants and was the first to use the term "family" for plants. Magnol had contact with all the leading botanists of Europe.
Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731).  Dutch anatomist, botanist and physician remembered for his developments in anatomical preservation and the creation of dioramas or scenes incorporating human parts.
Early in his career Ruysch was an eager student of anatomy, who made his name by demonstrating the existence of valves in the lymphatic vessels.  He was named Praelector of Anatomy for the surgeon's guild of Amsterdam in 1665 and held the position until his death.  Ruysch was always basically an anatomist who was unsurpassed in preparing specimens. He even built and maintained a museum of corpses prepared according to the method he developed; he ultimately sold the collection to Peter the Great, and immediately began assembling another.  As Professor of Botany at the Athenaeum Illustre (in Amsterdam) he gave regular lectures to the surgeons and apothecaries, and he published a description of the rare plants in the garden.
Member: Academia Leopoldina, 1705; Royal Society, 1720; Académie Royal des Sciences (replacing Newton) in 1727.  He was in addition a close friend of Boerhaave.
Charles Plumier (1646-1704).  French natural historian, botanist, pharmacologist.  Catholic.  Order of Minims in 1662.
Plumier (1646-1704), a member of the Minims, studied physics, mathematics, and drawing. He traveled to America three times to form natural history collections and wrote several important books on the botany of the Antilles. "The first machine available to engineers, as regards both date and importance, was the lathe. This machine, which goes back to some unknown period, did not achieve popularity until the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; it became really useful in the second half of the latter century."Singer et al., eds., A History of Technology, Vol. IV, p. 382.
After his return from his second voyage Plumier published Description des plantes de l'Amerique which contained 107 plates engraved at royal expense. Nova plantarum americanarum genera (1703), which contains 40 plates and description of 106 new genera. Traité des fougères de l'amerique (1705), with 172 plates was published upon his return from his third voyage.
Plumier's duty on his first voyage was to collect plants to form a natural history collection of plants. Surian gathered plants with the intent for medical application and chemical analyses. After Surian and Plumier quarreled, Plumier traveled alone on the following two voyages as the royal botanist. He died while waiting for the ship that would take him to Peru in search of the cinchona tree.
Although it is unclear that medicinal plants were Plumier's goal on the first voyages, the final one was aimed at the cinchona tree: quinine.

Edward Tyson (1650-1708).  English physician, anatomist, natural historian. Practiced in London (from 1677). Pioneered in comparative anatomy; compared human and simian similarities and differences in Orang-Outang (1699).  Anglican.
In Oxford Tyson became interested in natural history. His manuscripts contain considerable material on this study, including detailed descriptions of a number of plants and of such species as the sea-anenome.  Tyson published more than two dozen articles in the Philosophical Transactions on anatomy, natural history, morbid anatomy and pathology. He was a pioneer in correlating post mortem dissections with specific diseases. He discovered the "Tyson glands" in the penis.
He was a leader in comparative anatomy: Phocaena, or the Anatomy of a Porpess, 1680, which contains an extensive discussion of his idea of a natural history of animals based on comparative anatomy. Later he added an anatomy of a rattlesnake and of some other animals. He contributed two descriptions of fish to Willoughby's History of Fishes, 1686. In 1698 an anatomy of a female opossum and in 1704 of a male. 1699: Orang-Outang (a chimpanzee)--this was his most important work. His manuscripts contain many more descriptions and dissections than he found time from his medical practice to publish. Incidentally, he used the microscope in many of his dissections.  He also published on medicine in Bartholin's Acta medica.

Marcus Gerbezius / Marko Gerbec (1658-1718).  Slovene physician, chemist.  Catholic.
In chemistry, Gerbezius was concerned with fermentation.  He was city physician in Krain, near Ljubljana and physician to some monasteries.  Named chief physician of province of Carniola (in Slovenia).  Became most sought-after practitioner in Ljubljana.
Member: Academia Leopoldina; formal: 1688 admitted to Academia Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum; 1701, founding member of Academia Operosorum in Ljubljana (president 1712 -1713).

Thomas Johnson (c. 1600-1644).  English botanist, pharmacologist, physician.  Anglican.
Johnson published four works that were the first local flora in England: Iter plantarum investigationis, 1629, and Descriptio itineris, 1632, both about botanical tours of Kent and of Hampstead Heath; Mercurius botanicus, 1634, describing a botanical tour to Oxford, Bath, Bristol, Southampton, and the Isle of Wight; and Mercurii botanici pars alter, 1641, another botanizing tour, this time of north Wales. The last two embodied an attempt to produce a British flora, and with his friend Goodyer he had plans to produce a more extensive British flora. These plans were cut short by his death. Johnson was an apothecary, and in his botanizing he always paid attention to the medicinal properties of plants. He published a new improved edition of Gerard's Herbal, and he was involved in the publication in London of the Pharmacopoei parisiensis, 1637.
A Thomas Johnson -- whom virtually everyone takes to be this Thomas Johnson -- published a translation of the works of Paré in 1634, a book that exerted great influence on British surgery in the 17th century.
Membership: Society of Apoth. 

Henry Power (c.1623-1668).  English physician, microscopist, natural philosopher, chemist, astronomer, physiologist.  Anglican.
Power did not become involved in the religious divisions of his day; he had close friends in all camps.
In his microscopical observations Power was much concerned to illustrate the workmanship of God. Power was interested in all aspect of the new natural philosophy, including natural history. As a medical student he became interested in Harvey's discoveries. With Towneley, he carried out meteorological measurements. He produced some embriology and was one of the early preformationists.
However, he is best known for Experimental Philosophy, in Three Books, 1664, which included the first microscopical observations published in England, and also explored atmospheric pressure, and presented some (though not much) work on magnetism. It appears that he independently discovered Boyle's Law. Experimental Philosophy was explicitly directed to demonstrating the "atomic" (i.e, mechanical) philosophy.  Power left a number of manuscripts on chemistry, especially in relation to physiology.
He was also a student of astronomy. He equipped himself with a telescope for observing. He was an ardent Copernican.
In his final years he produced a manuscript, intended for publication, on anatomy and physiology, a work which returned to his early interest in Harvey and made circulation central.
Membership: Royal Society. 
Sir John Floyer (3 March 1649 – 1 February 1734) English physician and author.
One of the first active proponents of cold water therapy in Britain during the renaissance was the Christian physician, Sir John Floyer. In 1697 he published a cold water treatise which was later to be called The Ancient Psychrolusia. Floyer reminded his readers that the physical frailties of his contemporaries, he believed, stemmed from two main causes. One of these was the abandonment of the custom of triple immersion at baptism and the substitution of mere pouring or sprinkling. Had not St. Augustine recorded how great miracles were performed by total baptism in his days - the healing of tumors, the curing of gout and palsy may not have survived.
Johann Conrad Peyer (1653-1712). Swiss physician and anatomist.
Professor in Schaffhausen; first to describe lymphatic nodules in walls of small intestine, now known as Peyer's patches (1682). in 1677 Peyer published Exercitatio anatomico-medica de glandulis intestinorum earumque usu et affectionibus, in which he describes the eponymous Peyer's patches. These anatomical structures are aggregated lymphatic nodules found in the lining of the small intestine. He was also the author of an influential work on veterinary medicine titled Merycologia sive de Ruminantibus et Ruminatione Commentariae.
Domenico Gagliardi (c. 1660-c. 1725).  Italian anatomist, physician, microscopist.  Catholic.
Gagliardi's name is especially connected with anatomy, particularly the skeletal system, which he summarized in Anatomes ossium novis inventis illustrata (1689). The book contains the first description of a case of what was presumably tuberculosis of the bone. He carried out morphological and microscopic investigations on human bones, using chemical reagents in order to bring out the fine structure.
In 1720 he did a close study of the pneumonia epidemic raging in Rome. His study was anatomicopathological in approach and based on carefully conducted autopsies. The study led to his Relazione de' male di petto, 1720. He also published other medical works.
He was a member of the Medical College of Rome.
Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753). British scientist, physician and naturalist.
Physician to Governor of Jamaica (1687-89), collected over 800 new species of plants; succeeded Sir Isaac Newton as president of the Royal Society (1727-41); first physician to George II (1727-41); founded Botanic Garden (1721). Bequeathed to nation library of 50,000 volumes, several thousand manuscripts, pictures, coins, and curiosities, which formed nucleus of The British Museum and later The Natural History Museum.
John Arbuthnot (1667-1735). Scottish physician and writer. Physician to Queen Anne.
Author of witty political pamphlets, including one (The History of John Bull, 1727, a satire against the duke of Marlborough) which popularized and fixed modern conception of John Bull as the typical Englishman; chief contributor to Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus (1713-14; published 1741).
Govard Bidloo (1649-1713).  Dutch anatomist, biologist, surgeon, studied microscopy.
In 1670 he was apprenticed to a surgeon in Amsterdam and was obliged to attend Ruysch's anatomical lessons and Gerard Blasius' botany lessons at the Hortus medicus.  Bidloo's chief work was his anatomical atlas, published with a Latin text in 1685 and with a Dutch text in 1690, the first large scale anatomical atlas since Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica. His anatomical atlas was plagiarized by Willim Cowper, who published in 1698 as The anatomy of humane bodies. Bidloo proved, in his other anatomical work, Opera omnia, that the nerves are not hollow tubes,as had been believed since the time of Galen, but are taut, transparent fibrous threads.  Bidloo is remembered as a biologist for his admirable work on the liver fluke. He described his work on this parasite in a letter to Leeuwenhoek. In addition to his continuing medical practice Bidloo was also a surgeon. He also served as a physician and surgeon with the army.
Charles Maitland (1668-1748). Scottish-born surgeon. 
At the behest of English aristocrat Lady Mary Wortley Montague, Dr. Maitland was the first doctor to apply variolation techniques in Britain.  King George II sent him to Hanover to inoculate Frederick Prince of Wales.
"Lady Montague was so determined to prevent the ravages of smallpox and so impressed by the Turkish method that she ordered the Embassy surgeon, Charles Maitland, to inoculate her 5-year-old son in March 1718. On returning to London in April 1721, she had Maitland inoculate her 4-year-old daughter in the presence of the physicians of the court. Among these physicians was Sir Hans Sloane, President of the Royal Society and the king's physician. This was the first professional variolation performed in England. Word of these practices spread and reached the Princess of Wales and other members of the Royal Family. Charles Maitland was granted royal license to perform a trial of variolation on six prisoners at Newgate on 9 August 1721; these prisoners were promised a full pardon if they submitted to the so-called Royal Experiment. The trial was observed by the court physicians and 25 members of the Royal Society and the College of Physicians. All of the prisoners survived and were released. One was exposed to two children with the illness and proved to be immune. Maitland later variolated six charity children in London and successfully treated the two daughters of the Princess of Wales on 17 April 1722. Not surprisingly, the procedure gained general acceptance after this last success." Nicolau Barquet, MD, and Pere Domingo, MD.  "Smallpox: The Triumph over the Most Terrible of the Ministers of Death Annals of Internal Medicine 15 October 1997. 127:635-642.
Kwasimukamba or Graman Quassi (ca. 1690 – ca. 1780)
Surinamese healer, botanist, slave and later freedman of the 18th century, who is today best known for having given his name to the plant species quassia.‪ ‬Kwasi's roots were among the Kwa speaking Akan people of present day Ghana, but as a child he was enslaved and brought to the New World. As a slave in Suriname, a Dutch colony in South America, he participated in the wars against the Saramaka maroons as a scout and negotiator for the Dutch, and he lost his right ear during the fighting. For this reason the Surinamese maroons remember him as a traitor.
Kwasi worked as a healer of some renown, and fared so well that he was able to get his freedom and travel to the Netherlands. One of his remedies was a bitter tea that he used to treat infections by intestinal parasites, this concoction was based on the plant Quassia amara which Carolus Linnaeus named after him, as the discoverer of its medicinal properties. Quassia continues to be used in industrially produced medicines against intestinal parasites today.‪[4]‬ In contemporary accounts he was described as "one of the most extraordinary black men in Suriname, and perhaps the world"‪‬.
John Wesley (1703–1791). Clergyman, electrotherapist, nature cure healer.
Founder of the Methodist denomination of Protestant Christianity. He formed societies, opened chapels, examined and commissioned preachers, administered aid charities, prescribed for the sick, helped to pioneer the use of electricity, herbs, and diet for the treatment of illness, superintended schools and orphanages, and received at least £20,000 for his publications. The aim of his enormously popular book - Primitive Physick - was to bring practical medical advice to workers and others who could not afford private doctors. Wesley is not commonly known for his medical work, but in fact his interest in the subject was lifelong. His reading in the field was substantial, and he freely dispensed prescriptions and advice to those who consulted him during his travels. He particularly espoused the use of electricity for a wide range of ailments, mental as well as physical. The 'Preface' to Primitive Physic is used to outline his views on the origins of disease. Like Rogers, he sees illness as a consequence of the Fall, and like Cheyne, therefore, he regards mankind as primarily responsible for its own sufferings. The purpose of Primitive Physic, therefore, was to restore the art of healing to simple men, for 'Who would not wish to have a Physician always in his house, and one that attends without fee or reward?' Wesley covers, alphabetically, most of the ailments common in his day. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on 2 March with his brother Charles. The Wesley brothers are also commemorated on 3 March in the Calendar of Saints of the Episcopal Church and on 24 May in the Anglican calendar. We consider Wesley to be one of the first of the nature cure physicians of the renaissance that led to the development of 'naturopathy' that migrated to the Americas.
Raymond Vieussens (c. 1635-1715).  French physician, surgeon. 
Vieussens advanced the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the brain, heart, nervous system, and circulatory system. Many anatomical features in these systems are named after him, such as Vieussens' centrum (the white oval core of each hemisphere of the brain); Vieussens' valve (a sheet of thin white tissue in the brain); Vieussens' ventricle (one of the fluid-filled spaces in the brain); Vieussens' ansa (a loop in the ganglia around the subclavian artery); Vieussens' ganglion (a network of nerves between the aorta and the stomach); Vieussens' anulus, isthmus, or limbus (a ring of muscle in the right atrium of the heart); Vieussens' foramina (tiny openings in the veins of the right atrium of the heart); and Vieussens' veins (small veins on the surface of the heart).
Johannes Bohn (1640-1718).  German physician.  Physiologist (some Iatrochemical theories).  Founder of forensic medicine, especially forensic autopsy.  Lutheran.
Johannes Bohn was known for his pioneer work as a medical-legal officer in forensic medicine. He introduced the policy of thorough autopsies of the deceased, and specialized in the investigation of lethal wounds. He also did early research concerning the physiology of the circulatory system. Many of Bohn's scientific writings were burned prior to his death, as stipulated in his will. Two of his important medical works that survived are:
• De renunciatione vulnerum seu vulnerum lethalium examen (1689): a medical-legal treatise in which he analyzes the distinction between purposeful and accidental fatal wounds.
• Circulus anatomico physiologicus seu Oeconomia corporis animalis (1710): a series of lectures on respiration, circulation, the digestive process, fetal development, et al.
Urban Hiaerne / Urban Hjarne (1641-1724).  Swiss physician, iatrochemist, mineralogist, pharmacologist, chemist, metallurgist, natural historian.  Lutheran.
Hiaerne's contribution in applied chemistry included work on improved methods for producing alum and vitriols, and on rust preventatives. In the field of pure chemistry he worked on the problems concerning the formation of materials and the composition of bodies and ultimate particles. He is best known for his work on acid, which he produced through the distillation of ant specimens. He invented a varnish that kept wood from rotting.
He was a geologist and made an inventory of Sweden's minerals and natural resources (1702, 1706). This was his most interesting scientific accomplishment. He superintended the methods of mining and melting minerals. In 1682 he made a trip in Germany to study mines and melting-pots.
For a long period Hiaerne was Sweden's leading authority in medicine. He developed some medicines, some of which he distributed among the poor in Stockholm. The Laboratorium chemicum was more involved in the production of medicines than anything else.
Hiaerne developed the first spas in Sweden. He was on the Board of Mines (Assessor in 1683, Vice Preses, 1713) and made a trip into Germany to observe methods.
Member Medical College, 1675-1724; Royal Society, 1669-1724. 
Alexander Stuart (1673-1742).  Scottish physiologist, physician.
Author: Disseratio de structura et motu musculari, 1738. Three Lectures on Muscular Motion, 1739. These two related works, elaborating on his doctoral thesis at Leiden, expounded the doctrines of iatromechanism.
New Discoveries and Improvements in Anatomy and Surgery . . . with Cases and Cures, 1738.
Physician to the Queen, 1728.
Member: Royal Society, 1714. First Croonian Lecturer (on muscular physiology), 1738. Copley medal for this work.  College of Physicians of London, 1728. Censor, 1732, 1741.  Académie Royale des Sciences.
Lorenzo Bellini (1643-1704). Italian physician and anatomist.
Professor, Pisa (1663-93); physician to Duke Cosimo III and Pope Clement XI (1693 ff.). Discovered complex of tubules comprising kidney (subsequently Bellini's tubules) and described mechanical theory of excretion in Exercitatio anatomica de usu renum (1662); investigated senseof taste; published comprehensive mechanical-hydraulic theory in De urinis et pulsibus et missione sanguinis (1683) and Opuscula aliquot (1695).
David Kellner (1643-1725).   German physician and scientist.  Personal physician to the ruler of Prussia.
The second of Kellner's surgical dissertations is dedicated to Johann Langguth, a physician in the service of Duke Ernst of Saxony. It is possible that Langguth advanced Kellner in his work.  A reference in his Schenkeldiener (1690) mentions that he wrote the book in 1683 when he was with Duke Heinrich, his prince and overlord, in Roemhild. The book itself is dedicated to Johann Scheib, the surgeon and barber of Gotha (the prince's city of residence) whom Kellner calls his friend and patron. 
Author: Hochnutzbar und bewahrte edle Bierbraukunst, mit einem Anhang ueber Wein und Essig (Leipzig- Gotha, 1690; 2nd ed., Leipzig, Eisenach, 1710).
Johannes von Muralt (1645-1733).  Swiss physician, anatomist, surgeon, physiologist, zoologist.  Calvinist.
Von Mutalt practiced medicine quite successfully, applying the knowledge he learned from anatomical dissections. He developed new surgical procedures and set them forth systematically in his writings. He is also responsible for founding anatomical teaching in Zürich.
Member: Academia Leopoldina.  1681, member of the Academia Caesario-Leopoldina Natura Curiosorum, with the name "Aretaeus."
Georg Wolfgang Wedel  (1645-1721).  German physician, iatrochemist, pharmacologist, alchemist.  Lutheran.
Wedel was one of the leading iatrochemists of his time, working under the influence of Sylvius. His medical publications leaned heavily in the pharmacological direction.  He was convinced of the possibility of the transmutation of metals, and he published on alchemy.  Wedel was an extremely productive author.
He practiced medicine early in his career, and presumably later, albeit to a much higher strata of clientele. His medical lectures dealt with pharmaceutical chemistry, and his publications leaned heavily toward pharmaceutical questions.
Member: Berlin Academy, 1716; Academia Leopoldina, 1672.  Wedel's extensive correspondence is catalogued by Spanke.
Willem Ten Rhyne / Willem Ten Rhijne (1647-1700).  Dutch physician, botanist, pharmacologist.  Jewish Calvinist.
After his M.D. Ten Rhyne published on gout in 1669.  While in Japan he studied the tea plant and other plants. Rhijne collected materials on Japanese medicine, especially on acupuncture and moxibustion, the first account of acupuncture by a European.
Earlier he had studied the plants at the Cape of Good Hope, where he stopped en route to the East Indies. He published on all of these. Eventually he collaborated with Adriaan van Reede tot Drakestein on a twelve volume Hortus Malabaricus.  Ten Rhijne published a classic work on leprosy in 1687, and a work which was Europe's real introduction to acupuncture. His work on plants seems always to have had their pharmacological uses at least partly in mind.
John Francis Vigani (c. 1650-1713).  Italian-born chemist, pharmacologist, instrument-maker.  Catholic, then Anglican.
He was a practical working chemist and pharmacist with little or no interest in theory. His aim was to teach the preparation of useful chemical compounds and pharmacological prescriptions. His one published work, Medulla chemiae, Danzig, 1682 (republished in London, 1683), was a set of instructions to produced certain chemicals and medicines. He devised a method to purify sulfate of iron from copper, and one for making ammonium sulfate. He was free of alchemical inclinations.
Intimate friendship with Newton. He was one of the few visitors to Newton's rooms in Trinity.  Friendship with John Covell.  Reared a Catholic, and apparently conformed to Anglicanism later.
Wilhelm Homberg (1652-1715). Dutch naturalist, physicist, botanist, instrument-maker and chemist, born. Batavia, Java.
Practiced medicine at Paris (1682-85, and after 1691) and Rome (1685-90); helped establish analytical chemical techniques in studies of acid-alkali reactions, etc.; discovered boric acid (1702). In addition to his work of chemistry, part of which had a practical bent, Homberg developed a new sedative.
Homberg made his own microscopes and his own pneumatic machine. Apprently he developed the split ring socket tripod support for the microscope. More importantly, he made an instrument to measure the specific gravity of fluids.
All Homberg's work was published in the form of Memoires of the Acadamie royale des sciences (1692-1714), mainly on chemical subjects. He also published on pneumatics and botany.
Member: Acadamie Royal des Sciences, 1691-1715.
Augustus Quirinus Bachmann / Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (common name) (1652-1723).  German anatomist, botanist, astronomer, pharmacologist. Wrote on removing useless items from the pharmacopia.
Rivinus published a large number of treatises concerning the disciplines he represented. An almost complete list of his work is compiled under the title of Dissertatione medicae diversis temporibus habitae, nunc vero in unum fasciculum collectae, Leipzig, 1710. Besides medicine he published works concerning astronomy. Observations on sunspots fascinated him so much that he was almost totally blinded for the last ten years of his life. He was a member of the Royal Society.  Associated eponyms: Rivinus' canals (Ducts of the sublingual glands), Rivinus' gland (A sublingual gland), Rivinus' notch (The tympanic notch in the upper part of the tympanic portion of the temporal bone), Viola riviniana (Wood violet).
Johann Conrad Peyer (1653-1712). Swiss physician and anatomist.
Professor in Schaffhausen; first to describe lymphatic nodules in walls of small intestine, now known as Peyer's patches (1682). in 1677 Peyer published Exercitatio anatomico-medica de glandulis intestinorum earumque usu et affectionibus, in which he describes the eponymous Peyer's patches. These anatomical structures are aggregated lymphatic nodules found in the lining of the small intestine. He was also the author of an influential work on veterinary medicine titled Merycologia sive de Ruminantibus et Ruminatione Commentariae.
Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720). Italian physician, clinician, and botanist.
Physician to three popes. Considered first modern hygienist; related prevalence of malaria in swamps to presence of mosquitoes and recommended drainage as preventive measure. Wrote De subitaneis mortibus on sudden deaths in Rome (1707), De motu cordis et aneurysmatibuson cardiac pathology (1728), treatises on influenza, malaria, rinderpest, etc. Lancisi is considered the first modern hygienist.
Bruno Tozzi (1656-1743).  Italian botanist, natural historian.  Catholic.
Tozzi was deeply interested in botany. He collected on his travels for the order, and between 1700 and 1725 he went on many excursions with Micheli, whose teacher and then friend he was. He became good at watercolors in depicting plants. He was especially interested in fungi, lichens, algae, and bryophytes. Tozzi published nothing during his life, but he nevertheless established a reputation among the naturalists (and especially botanists) of all Europe, and he was an important figure in the science of botany. (Saccardo lists a publication of 1703, which others deny to have existed.)  Especially in his old age he also collected information on birds and insects.  His Sylva fungorum, a manuscript, is preserved in the Bibliotheca nazionale in Florence.
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He was close to other naturalists in his order, and close to Micheli, whom he taught initially and then collaborated with.  He shared his collections and drawings with William Sherard; he carried on active correspondence with Boerhaave, James Petiver, Hans Sloane, and Micheli.
With Micheli he founded the Società Botanica Fiorentina.  He entered the order of the monks of Vallombroso on 14 May 1676. He eventually became abbot of the house at Vallombroso and procurator general of the order in Rome.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708). French botanist and physician.
Professor at Jardin des Plantes, Paris (1688-1708); one of the founders of modern systematic botany; credited with being first to group plants into genera. Author of Elements de botanique (1694). A French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for plants. The botanist Charles Plumier had been his pupil and accompanied him on his voyages. His herbarium collection of 6,963 specimens was housed in Paris, in Jardin du Roi. Now part of the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle.‪ ‬
Domenico Gagliardi (c. 1660-c. 1725).  Italian anatomist, physician, microscopist.  Catholic.
Gagliardi's name is especially connected with anatomy, particularly the skeletal system, which he summarized in Anatomes ossium novis inventis illustrata (1689). The book contains the first description of a case of what was presumably tuberculosis of the bone. He carried out morphological and microscopic investigations on human bones, using chemical reagents in order to bring out the fine structure.
In 1720 he did a close study of the pneumonia epidemic raging in Rome. His study was anatomicopathological in approach and based on carefully conducted autopsies. The study led to his Relazione de' male di petto, 1720. He also published other medical works.
He was a member of the Medical College of Rome.
Friedrich Hoffmann (1660-1742). German physician.
Experimented with various remedies, Hoffmann's anodyne and Hoffmann's drops being named after him; adherent of the iatrophysical school of medicine; an influential theorist and systematizer of medicine. He showed enthusiasm for the new hydropahty doctrine of water cure. Gout, rheumatism, fevers, smallpox, skin diseases and a score of other ills were thought to be suitable for cold water treatment. His family had been connected with medicine for 200 years before him.
Antonio Vallisnieri (1661-1730).  Italian entomologist, embryologist, natural historian, natural philosopher, physician, geologist.  Catholic.
While practicing in Regio, Vallisnieri collected, dissected, and observed. Especially he was interested in the generation of insects, leading to Sopra la curiosa origine di molti insetti, a work which followed Redi and Malpighi in its rejection of spontaneous generation. He did research as well on human and animal reproduction. In Padua he collected a considerable museum of natural history.
Vallisnieri developed the theory of the chain of being with man, of course, at the pinnacle. He was also an admirer of Democritus, whom he considered the father of true natural philosophy, and along with that an exponent of iatromechanics and of mechanistic ideas of preformation.  As a physician he was convinced that medicine must cease to depend upon philosophy, as in the past, but should look rather to biology. He also studied the etiology of infectious diseases.  His interest in natural history led on to investigations of movements of the earth, the origin of springs, and the origin of alluvial valleys. He also investigated fossils.
Vallisnieri ranged over a very large number of related fields, including anatomy, physiology, microscopy, zoology, botany, mineralogy, and paleontology.
Memberships: Royal Society, Academia Leopoldina, Institute Bologna, Medical College, FRS in 1705.
François Pourfour du Petit (1664-1741).  French physiologist, anatomist, surgeon, pharmacologist.  Catholic.
Pourfour is known for his surgical skill and for a number of important discoveries, including that of the canal between the anterior and posterior suspensory ligaments of the lens of the eye.  He is especially associated with the physiological experiments carried out at Namur between 1710 and 1712, and at Paris during the mid-1720's. In 1712 at Namur he showed that the origin of the sympathetic nerve was not the cranium. He carried out this experiment for members of the Académie in 1725. Although his results were definitive, they were largely ignored until the 19th century.
He described his original research in several treatises published between 1710 and 1728. Among their titles are Trois lettres d'un médecin...sur un nouveau systeme du cerveau (1710); Sur l'operation de la cataracte (1724); and Mémoires sur plusieurs découvertes faites dans les yeux de l'homme... (1723).
He designed ophthalmic instruments. Bernard-Horner Syndrome.
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1722-1741.
Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723). Italian anatomist.
Lecturer in Bologna (from 1705); known for his researches on the ear described in De aure humana tractatus (1704); invented technique known as Valsalva maneuver. His research focused on the anatomy of the ears. He coined the term Eustachian tube and he described the aortic sinuses of Valsalva in his writings, published posthumously in 1740. His name is associated with the Valsalva antrum of the ear and the Valsalva maneuver, which is used as a test of circulatory function. Anatomical structures bearing his name are Valsalva's muscle and taeniae Valsalvae.‪ ‬
Giovan Bonomo / Giovan Bonomi (1666-1696).  Italian physician.  Scientist.  Court official.  Catholic.
Bonomo's major work, done in collaboration with Cestoni in Livorno, Observazioni intorno a'pellicelli del corpo umano (1687), affirmed that scabies was caused by mites and provided the first clinical and experimental proof of the "live" infection.
John Tabor (1667-c. 1724).  English physician.  Anglican.
Tabor's major work, Exercitationes medicae (London, 1724), in the school of Freind and Keill, attempted to incorporate medical animism into a mathematical framework. He devoted considerable attention to detailed formulations of the shape and elasticity of muscle fibers and offered a comprehensive account of the heart's structure and function.
Hermann Boerhaave (1668-1738). Dutch physician. Chemist.  Botanist. 
A remarkable Dutch physician and botanist known as the founder of clinical teaching. A collection of his religious thoughts on medicine, translated from Latin into English, has been compiled under the name Boerhaaveìs Orations.
Professor, Leiden (from 1708); credited with founding modern system of clinical instruction. He was the leading medical teacher of the early 18th century. His works on medicine and chemistry had widespread use as basic textbooks. Author of Institutiones medicae in usus annuae exercitationis domesticos digestae (1708) and Aphorismi de cognoscendis et curandis morbis (1709), encyclopedic medical books widely translated; Elementa chemiae (1724); etc.
Sebastien Vaillant (1669-1722).  French botanist, pharmacologist.  Catholic.
After he got to Paris, Vaillant came in from Neuilly, where he practised as a surgeon, every Wednesday to attend Tournefort's courses at the Jardin du Roi. He also made several botanical expeditions with him. He became an astute plant analyst and began a systematic anatomical study of all the plants in Tournefort's Institutiones.
Over a fourteen year period many scientists accompanied Vaillant on botanical excursions notably along the coasts of Normandy and Brittany. Apart from his fieldwork he concentrated on careful dissections of plants. His premature death prevented the publication of some of his manuscripts, notably his inaugural lecture in which he presented irrefutable evidence on the existence of plant sexuality. He was the first in France to promote the theory of sexuality of plants.
When he was near death he gave his notes and plates to Boerhaave for publication. In 1727 Boerhaave published Botanicon parisiense, the culmination of thirty-six years of Vaillant's botanical research.
Member: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1716-22.  Among his correspondents were Sherard, Micheli, and Boerhaave. After much negotiation, Vaillant's personal herbarium remained in France at the Jardin du Roi. Vaillant had made arrangements to sell it to Sherard. Louis XIV offered Vaillant's widow 12000 livres for the herbarium to remain on French soil, and she conceded.
Karl Nikolaus Lang (1670-1741).  Swiss paleontologist, natural historian, physician.
In addition to practicing medicine for his entire career, Lang was called upon by certain organizations to prepare reports on water quality. In 1720, with Mauriz Kappeler, he was appointed to investigate the springs at Schachenwald, Hackenrain, and Doggeli-Loecher. This report still exists. In addition, he was commissioned by the government of Uri to investigate Gades Unterschaechen and the privately owned spring at Suessberg.
Memberships: Academia Leopoldina, Berlin Academy, Institute Bologna.  John Woodward sucessfully opposed his membership in the Royal Society.  1703, member of the Academia Physico-Criticorum, Siena; 1705, member of the Academia Caesareo-Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum.  Member of the Prussian Academy.  Member of the Academia Scientiarum, Bologna.  Connections: He was a good friend of the French botanist Joseph Pitton.
Member: the Leopoldina (1696), the Berlin Academy (1701), the Academy of Sciences of the Palatinate ("Ak. d. Wiss. Hopfalzgraf") (1727), the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg (1731 or 1735), and the Royal Society (1720).
Étienne-François Geoffroy / Geoffroy the Elder (1672-1731). French chemist, pharmacist, physician.
Professor at College de France, Paris (1709-31) and Jardin des Plantes (1712-30). In 1718 he advanced the general proposition that if two substances in combination encounter a third with which one of the two has a greater affinity, that one will leave the original combination and unite with the third substance to form a new compound. Geoffroy is known for his table of chemical affinities, Table des differents Rapports observés  en chimie entre differentes substances (1718), a model for many years until invalidated by C. L.Berthollet.  Older brother of Claude Joseph Geoffroy; uncle of Claude-François Geoffroy.
Geoffroy learned from his father, the fourth in a respected dynasty of pharmacists. Such scientists as Wilhelm Homberg, Joblot, Verney, and J.D.Cassini visited his home, giving demonstrations and lectures that supplemented his education. In 1692 he went to Montpellier for a year as a journeyman to learn pharmacy from Pierre Sanche. Apparently the apothecaries Jeoffroy and Sanche traded sons as assistants.  When he was in Montpellier he began to attend courses at the medical school without matriculating. After he retured to Paris in 1694, he became a master apothecary. He later turned to the study of medicine. He earned the bachelor's degree in Paris in 1702, and eventually graduated M.D. at Paris in 1704.
Codex medicamentarium seu pharmacopoeia parisiensis, published by the Faculty of Medicine in 1732, was largely his work. It contained many chemical remedies, in addition to the traditional galenicals.
Member: Royal Society, 1698-1731; Académie Royal des Sciences, 1699-1731
James Keill (1673-1719).  Scottish anatomist, iatromechanist, physiologist, physician, chemist.  Anglican.  Younger brother of John Keill.
Keill revised, completed, and published the translation of Lemery's Course of Chymistry, 1698.  Anatomy of the Human Body Abridged, 1698--largely derivative although later edition incorporated Keill's own increasing knowledge of anatomy. Despite its derivative nature, it was the most popular English compensium of anatomy of its time.
Keill was an iatromechanist in the tradition of Pitcairne. His physiological theories showed up in later editions of the Anatomy. In 1708, An Account of Animal Secretion . . . and Muscular Motion, which drew heavily on the Newtonian concept of attraction, Keill was the first to calculate, on dubious grounds, the rate at which the blood flows.  Essays on Several Parts of Animal Oeconomy, 1717, was the second edition of Secretion. Tentamina medico-physica, 1718, translated the Essays into Latin. Keill attempted to relate his physiology to practice. His Medica statica, 1718, conclused with a number of health precepts and with two medical essays.
Member: Royal Society, 1712.  Informal Connections: Friendship and extensive medical correspondence with Sir Hans Sloane.
William Smellie (1697-1753).  Scottish obstetrician, anatomist.
Lectured on obstetrics in London (from 1739); first to teach obstetrics and midwifery on scientific basis; discovered and described how the infant's head adapts to pelvic canal changes during birth. Author of Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Midwifery (1752-64) and A Sett of Anatomical Tables (1754).  Dr. Smellie also researched the putrefaction of corpses, but he is known to medical history as the inventor of the "long obstetric forceps" used on Queen Charlotte.
William Smellie was the greatest figure in English obstetrics. He was first to teach obstetrics and midwifery on a scientific basis; first to lay down safe rules for the use of forceps, and to separate obstetrics from surgery.
He delivered poor women free of charge if his students were allowed to attend the delivery, thus establishing a trend towards the attendance of medically trained persons at childbirth. Associated eponyms: Mauriceau-Levret manipulation. The classical method of assisted breech delivery. The after-coming head is delivered with the child resting on the physician's forearm.
Johann Friedrich Henckel (1678-1744).  German mineralogist, chemist, physician.  Lutheran.
Henckel discovered useful processes in the fabrication of porcelain. Around c. 1710, Henckel opened his own medical practice in Dresden before receiving his M.D.  From 1712-1730, practiced medicine in Freiberg, becoming district physician (1718), town physician (1721), and mine physician (1723).  In 1730, he moved to Dresden. In 1732, he was appointed councilor of mines (Bergrat) with a substantial budget for investigating Saxony's mineral resources.  Around c. 1732, he returned to Freiberg, where, with state help, he established a large laboratory for conducting his official duties, and also published and taught metallurgical chemistry. In 1737, he was appointed assessor at the chief mining office.
Member: Berlin Academy, Academia Leopoldina, 1928.
Johann Juncker (1679-1759).  German chemist, physician.  Lutheran.
In 1717, Juncker became physician to the Royal Pedagagical Institute and Orphanage in Halle, a kind of training hospital.  In 1729, he became professor of medicine at the University of Halle. He was also rector twice. He was eventually appointed Prussian privy councillor.  He practiced medicine during most, if not all, of his career.
Gerhard Van Swieten (1700-1772).  Dutch physician.
Like John Huxham, Dutch physician Gerhard Van Swieten was a student of Boerhaave at the University of Leyden. Boerhaave considered Van Swieten his star pupil and invited him to practice medicine in Leyden and assist at the University. Van Swieten popularized Boerhaave's methods in Vienna and helped build the reputation of the medical school. For thirty years, he published and republished his famous Commentaries Upon the Aphorisms of Herman Boerhaave, originally in Latin, then in Dutch, Spanish, French, German, and English. In 1755 van Swieten anticipated modern developments in acupuncture by nearly two centuries when he speculated that acupuncture and moxibustion were neurological phenomena.
Chevalier Antoine de Favray (8 September 1706, Bagnolet – 9 February 1798, Malta) was a French painter. He is known for his portraits of personalities of the Ottoman Empire, as well as paintings of Grand Masters in Malta.‪ ‬ˆn the latter half of the eighteenth century serving with the Order studied the skeletal and muscular movements of the human body and prepared anatomical drawings intended for the use of students in the medical school. The School of Anatomy and Surgery in Malta was established in 1676 by Grandmaster Fra Nicolas Cottoner with the first teacher being Dr. Fra Giuseppe Zammit.
Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777), Swiss anatomist, physiologist known as "the father of modern physiology."
A Protestant, he was involved in the erection of the Reformed church in Göttingen, and, as a man interested in religious questions, he wrote apologetic letters which were compiled by his daughter under the name.
Haller's attention had been directed to the profession of medicine while he was residing in the house of a physician at Biel after his father's death in 1721. While still a sickly and excessively shy youth, he went in his sixteenth year to the University of Tübingen (December 1723), where he studied under Elias Rudolph Camerarius Jr. and Johann Duvernoy. Dissatisfied with his progress, he in 1725 exchanged Tübingen for Leiden, where Boerhaave was in the zenith of his fame, and where Albinus had already begun to lecture in anatomy. At that university he graduated in May 1727, undertaking successfully in his thesis to prove that the so-called salivary duct, claimed as a recent discovery by Georg Daniel Coschwitz (1679–1729), was nothing more than a blood-vessel. Author of Elementa Physiologiae Corporis Humani (1757-66) and other scientific works; compiled Bibliothecae Medicinae Practicae (1776-88); also wrote philosophical romances as Usong (1771), Alfred (1773), Fabius and Cato (1774).

Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) Botanist.

The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) established the binomial system of biological nomenclature, formalized biological classification, and gave the first organization to ecology. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy" and also made contributions to ecology. Natural theology and the Bible were important to his Systema Naturae and Systema Vegetabilium.'
The Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."‪[3]‬ The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly."‪[3]‬ Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist". Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum (Prince of Botanists), "The Pliny of the North," and "The Second Adam". American news agency Time named Linnaeus the 31st most influential person in human history and the 5th most influential scientist.‪ ‬

John Fothergill (1712-1780)  English physician.
Practiced in London (from 1740); maintained botanical garden known through Europe. His "Account of the Sore Throat Attended with Ulcers" (1748) contained first recognition of diphtheria in England; first to describe coronary arteriosclerosis. Aided Benjamin Franklin (1774) in drafting scheme of reconciliation between England and American colonies; popularized use of coffee in England.
Percivall Pott (1714-1788).  English surgeon.
Sir Percivall Pott (6 January 1714 – 22 December 1788) born in London, England was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedy, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen. In 1775, Pott found an association between exposure to soot and a high incidence of scrotal cancer (later found to be a type of squamous cell carcinoma) in chimney sweeps. This unusual disease, later termed chimney sweeps' carcinoma due to Pott's investigation, was the first occupational link to cancer, and Pott became the first person to associate a malignancy with an environmental carcinogen. Pott implicated chimney soot as a direct contact carcinogen to skin.
He introduced improvements making surgery more humane, took steps toward abolishing extensive use of escharotics and cautery; suffered (1756) a particular kind of fracture of ankle, still called Pott's fracture; gave (1779) clinical description of a spinal affliction known as Pott's disease.
William Hunter  (1718-1783).  Scottish surgeon, physiologist, pathologist, anatomist, obstetrician. 
He was a leading teacher of anatomy, and the outstanding obstetrician of his day. His guidance and training of his ultimately more famous brother, John Hunter, was also of great importance. In 1764, he became physician to Queen Charlotte. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1767 and Professor of Anatomy to the Royal Academy in 1768.
Elder brother of John Hunter. The founder of modern obstetrics.  Surgeon-accoucheur, Middlesex Hospital (1748), British Lying-in Hospital (1749); physician extraordinary to Queen Charlotte Sophia (1764); first professor of anatomy, Royal Academy (1768). Began teaching (1746); devoted practice to obstetrics (from 1756). Author of Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus (1774).

Johann Joseph Gassner (August 22, 1727, Bavaria) was a noted exorcist.

While a Catholic priest at Klösterle he gained a wide celebrity by professing to "cast out devils" and to work cures on the sick by means simply of prayer; he was attacked as an impostor, but the bishop of Regensburg, who believed in his honesty, bestowed upon him the cure of Pondorf.
Gassner's methods have been linked to a special form of hypnotic training. He has been described as a predecessor of modern hypnosis.‪ ‬

John Howard (2 September 1726 – 20 January 1790) was a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.
The painful social conditions of the eighteenth century stirred a number of humane men to devote their powers, as St. Vincent de Paul had done, to ameliorating the miserable lives of the unfortunate. Prominent among these was the English philanthropist John Howard who investigated prisons all over England and in continental countries. Dungeon horrors which no one but he had ever seen, excepting the wretched prisoners and jailers, were recorded and re ported by him in writings which made a profound impression and brought about certain improvements.
John Hunter (1728-1793).  Scottish physiologist and surgeon who lived during the eighteenth century.
Considered the father of scientific surgery/modern surgical techniques, he is also well known for his large collection of anatomical specimens.  Assistant to his brother William (1748-59); surgeon at St. George's, London (1756); staff surgeon with English army (1760-63); practicedin London (1763); took house pupils, among whom was Edward Jenner (q.v.); began to lecture on surgery (1773); surgeon extraordinary to George III (1776); surgeon general to army (1790).  His investigations included venereal diseases, work relating to the descent of the testes in the fetus, course of the olfactory nerves, formation of pus, placental circulation, function of lymphatics, coagulation of blood, digestion inhibernating snakes and lizards, recovery of people apparently drowned, the structure of whales, bees, growth of deer's antlers; discovered that smaller arteries increase in size to compensate when circulation is arrested in larger ones; first to ligate artery for aneurysm (1785). Author of Natural History of the Human Teeth (1771), Treatise on the Venereal Disease (1786), Animal Oeconomy (1786).
Mikiel'Ang Grima (also known as Michel'Angelo Grima) (15 September 1729 - 25 August 1798) was a Maltese surgeon during the times of the Knights of Malta. He was particularly adept at traumatic surgery. Grima was considered to be one of the best surgeons of his time, as he was able to open bladders and remove stones in only two and a half minutes.
At age twelve he began his studies about surgery in the Holy Infirmary in Valletta. He continued his medical studies abroad in the University of Pisa and Florence. He obtained a doctorate in medicine and philosophy in 1754. Grima remained in Florence and worked at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova. Here he carried out experiments on live dogs, and published his findings in a book entitled Del Nuovo Metodo di Cucire gl'Intestini. Grima left Florence as an approved surgeon in 1758 and, by the permission of the Order arrived in Paris in 1760 and served as a medic with the French troops during the Seven Years' War. Here he wrote his second book about his work on the wounded soldiers, entitled Della Medicina Traumatica. This book was published in 1773.
Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) was a German physician with an interest in astronomy, who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called animal magnetism, sometimes later referred to as mesmerism. The theory attracted a wide following between about 1780 and 1850, and continued to have some influence until the end of the century‪]‬ In 1843 the Scottish physician James Braid proposed the term hypnosis for a technique derived from animal magnetism; today this is the usual meaning of mesmerism.
This word 'magnetism' became historically significant in this period and lead religious therapeutic into new dimensions. According to Mesmer, the universe is united in an 'aestheric continuum' or gas, which was dominated by magnetic forces whose disturbance was the cause of all disease. Since the stars were part of this continuum, then astrological phenomena were a part of this concept. Mesmer also thought that the human mind could modify this balance through the medium of induced trance, and his early experiments in healing were claimed to be as successful as those of any previous healer. His healings were directed at various types of disorders - convulsions and paralyses, hysteria and neuralgias, blindness and 'congestions' of the liver and spleen - with which earlier healers had also been successful in curing.
Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794): Is considered the "father of modern chemistry". He is known for his discovery of oxygen's role in combustion, developing chemical nomenclature, developing a preliminary periodic table of elements, and the law of conservation of mass. He was a Catholic and defender of scripture.
John Brown (1735-1788).  Scottish physician.
In his Elementa Medicinae, first published in 1780, Scottish physician John Brown challenged prevailing medical thought, most notably in his opposition to bloodletting in many cases of fever. His "Brunonian" system was controversial into the nineteenth century, but mainstream medical practice eventually incorporated its key elements. Benjamin Rush was interested in Brown's theories, and Thomas Jefferson owned a copy of the English translation of the Elementa Medicinae. The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush: His "Travels Through Life" together with his Commonplace Book for 1789-1813.
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798). Italian physician and physicist. Catholic.
Lecturer on anatomy at University of Bologna (1768-98); Professor of obstetrics at Instituto delle Scienze, Bologna (1782-98). Made pioneering researches in electrophysiology (from early 1780s), as causing muscular contractions in a frog's legs by application of static electricity; argued in Deviribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius (1791) that animal tissue contains an innate, vital force which he termed "animal electricity"; his theory partly refuted by Alessandro Volta; announced (1794) experiments which established presence of bioelectric forces in animal tissue.
Philippe Pinel (1745-1826). French physician.
A founder of psychiatry. Chief physician of Bicetre (1793-95) and director of Saltpetriere (1795-1826), both Parisian asylums; pioneered humane treatment of the insane; consideredinsanity result of psychological and physiological causes, rather than demonic possession; distinguished various psychoses and described hallucinations, withdrawal, and other symptoms. His Nosographie philosophique (1798) and Traite medico-philosophique sur l'alienation mentale ou la manie (1801) laid much of foundation for establishment of psychiatry as a field of medicine.
William Cumberland Cruickshank (1745-1800).  Scottish surgeon who discovered the ovum in mammals.
"Mr. Cruickshanks is known to the world by his medical publications; and as a teacher and writer he acquired a high reputation for his knowledge of anatomy and physiology. In the year 1786, he published his principal work The Anatomy of the absorbent vessels of the Human Body, a production of acknowledged merit, which has been translated into several languages. He also wrote an ingenious paper on the nerves of living animals, which establishes the important fact of the regeneration of mutilated nerves. This paper, however, although read before the Royal Society, was not published in the transactions of that body until several years afterwards. This delay was owing to the interference of Sir John Pringle, who conceived that Mr. Cruickshanks had controverted some of the opinions of the great HaIler. In the year 1797, Mr. Cruickshanks was elected fellow of the Royal Society.  [Note: The Royal Society names him as 'Cruickshank'.]  In 1799, he made his experiments on insensible perspiration, which he added to his work on the absorbent vessels."
Benjamin Rush (1746-1813). American physician, educator, and patriot. 
Practiced in Philadelphia (from 1769). Professor of chemistry, College of Philadelphia (1769-91) and at University of Pennsylvania (1791). Member, Continental Congress (1776, 1777) and signer of Declaration of Independence. Surgeon general of Continental army (1777-78). Established first free dispensary in U.S. (1786). Member, Pennsylvania constitutional ratification convention (1787). Treasurer, U.S. Mint (1797-1813). Author of Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on Chemistry (1770; first chemistry textbook in U.S.).
Rush also did pioneering work relating dentistry to physiology and was influential in founding veterinary medicine in America. Both fields had been considered beneath the dignity of the professional. His observations on the mentally ill seem to presage modern developments in psychoanalytic theory, especially his Medical Inquiries and Observations on the Diseases of the Mind (1812).
Rush's insistence on a rational, systematic body of knowledge for the medical profession certainly helped set the stage for the later medical revolution in America.
Edward Jenner (1749-1823) English physician.
Edward Jenner introduced vaccination against smallpox and thus laid the foundation of modern concepts of immunology.  Apprenticed to surgeon near Bristol; pupil of John Hunter in London (1770-72); began practice in Berkeley (1773). Observed that dairymaids who had had cowpox did not get smallpox; vaccinated James Phipps, a boy of eight, with matter from cowpox vesicles on hands of a milkmaid (1796); several weeks later the boy was inoculated with smallpox but did not contract the disease; published Inquiry into the Cause and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae in which he announced his discovery of vaccination (1798).  He called his method vaccination, using the Latin word vacca, meaning cow, and vaccinia, meaning cowpox. He also introduced the word virus.

James Parkinson (1755-1824).  Physician, surgeon, apothecary, geologist, palaeontologist, and political activist.

He is most famous for his 1817 work, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy‪[3]‬ in which he was the first to describe "paralysis agitans", a condition that would later be renamed Parkinson's disease by Jean-Martin Charcot.
Parkinson's disease is named after James Parkinson, who provided a detailed description of what he termed "shaking palsy" in an essay published in 1817. Parkinson was also the first to recognize a perforated appendix as a cause of death.
Parkinson was also interested in improving the general health and well-being of the population. He wrote several medical doctrines that exposed a similar zeal for the health and welfare of the people that was expressed by his political activism. He was a crusader for legal protection for the mentally ill, as well as their doctors and families.
In 1812 Parkinson assisted his son with the first described case of appendicitis in English, and the first instance in which perforation was shown to be the cause of death.

Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (1755 – 1843) was a German physician, best known for creating a system of medicine called homeopathy. Hahnemann was dissatisfied with the state of medicine in his time, and particularly objected to practices such as bloodletting. He claimed that the medicine he had been taught to practice sometimes did the patient more harm than good. Following up the pioneering work of the Viennese physician Anton von Störck, Hahnemann tested substances for the effects they produced on a healthy individual, presupposing (as von Störck had claimed) that they may heal the same ills that they caused. His researches led him to agree with von Störck that the toxic effects of ingested substances are often broadly parallel to certain disease states, and his exploration of historical cases of poisoning in the medical literature further implied a more generalised medicinal "law of similars". He later devised methods of diluting the drugs he was testing in order to mitigate their toxic effects. He claimed that these dilutions, when prepared according to his technique of 'potentization' using dilution and succussion (vigorous shaking), were still effective in alleviating the same symptoms in the sick. His more systematic experiments with dose reduction really commenced around 1800-1 when, on the basis of his 'law of similars,' he had begun using Ipecacuanha for the treatment of coughs and Belladonna for scarlet fever. The quinine bark Cinchona, created a revolution in medicine and commerce in Christendom. Hahnemann became convinced that many medical treatments such as bloodletting did more harm than good, and looked for gentler ways to treat patients. He was one of many physicians in the 1700s who set out to explore systematically the use and effects of vegetable and mineral drugs. ‪ The movement he created is credited for bringing to an end the barbaric practice of bloodletting. ‬
Matthew Baillie (1761-1823).  Scottish pathologist and anatomist. 
Inventor of treatment for dermoid cycts in the ovary.  Nephew of anatomists William and John Hunter.  Lecturer on Anatomy in London; Physician at St George's Hospital (1789); wrote Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body, (London 1793) the first publication in English on pathology as a separate subject and the first systematic study of pathology ever made.  After the publication of his book, he devoted himself to his medical practice, which by 1800 was the largest in London.  He became Physician Extraordinary to George III in 1810. 
Nathan Smith (1762-1829).  American physician. 
Introduced teaching of anatomy, surgery, and medicine at Dartmouth (1797-1813); Professor, Yale (1813-29); a founder of Yale Medical School.  His four sons, including Nathan Ryno Smith (1797-1877), became physicians.
Author: Practical Essay on Typhous Fever (1824).
Charles Bell (1774-1842)
Scottish surgeon and anatomist who pioneered neurophysiological research. Bell's experimental work served as a catalyst to other researchers in neurology and led to several important discoveries. Bell is remembered today for giving his name to Bell's palsy after demonstrating that lesions on the seventh cranial nerve (facial nerve) can cause facial paralysis. Author of New Idea of Anatomy of the Brain (1811), expanded into Nervous System of the Human Body (1830).
Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815). A physician, natural historian, and professor at the University of Pennsylvania.
Benjamin Smith Barton was one of the central figures in Philadelphia's early national scientific establishment. Having received his medical training in European universities, Barton was appointed Professor at the University of Pennsylvania in 1789, lecturing on botany, materia medica, natural history. A prolific author, he established his reputation as one of the nation's preeminent botanists through his botanical text book The Elements of Botany (1803), but his contributions to zoology, ethnology, and medicine were equally noteworthy. Barton's monograph on the "fascinating faculty" of the rattlesnake and his efforts in historical linguistics (New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America, 1798) were widely read, and his Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal (1804-1809) was one of the nation's first medical journals and an important outlet for natural historical research.
Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton, S.C., (August 28, 1774 – January 4, 1821) was the first native-born citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church (September 14, 1975). She established the first Catholic school in the nation, at Emmitsburg, Maryland, where she founded the first American congregation of religious sisters, the Sisters of Charity. . The Sisters carried on visiting nursing in the homes of such cases, founded hospitals for them and went to pest-ridden cities. Nursing and the care of the poor were the chief works of this order, and its houses extended soon throughout the country.
Thomas Bateman (1778-1821).  Physician and dermatologist.
He became a pupil of Dr Robert Willan, a pioneer in the diseases of the skin, at the Carey Street Public Dispensary. In 1804, due to Willan's influence, he was elected physician both at the Dispensary and at the Fever Institution (later the Fever Hospital). In 1805 he was admitted a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians. Based on his experience at the Fever Institution, between 1804 and 1816, Bateman wrote a series of reports on the diseases of London and the state of the weather. He contributed these papers to the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which he had jointly established in 1805 with Dr Duncan, junior, of Edinburgh, and Dr Reeve, of Norwich. The reports contributed to the establishment of his reputation, bringing him to the notice of a wider audience. The papers were later collected in one volume and published as Reports on the Diseases of London (1819).
At the Dispensary, under the tutelage of Willan, Bateman began to pay particular attention to diseases of the skin. Willan had been the first to describe these diseases in 'a positive scientific manner, without being swayed by theoretical and formulistic conceptions' (DNB, vol. III, p.393), and Bateman followed in his footsteps, extending and perfecting his methodology. With Willan's retirement in 1811, Bateman became the principal authority in London on all affections of the skin.
Elizabeth (Betsy) Fry (21 May 1780 – 12 October 1845), née Gurney, was an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. She has sometimes been referred to as the "angel of prisons". Fry was a major driving force behind new legislation to make the treatment of prisoners more humane, and she was supported in her efforts by the reigning monarch. Since 2001, she has been depicted on the Bank of England £5 note.
John Abercrombie (1780–1844), Scottish physician and Christian philosopher who created the a textbook about neuropathology.
The Chambers Biographical Dictionary says of him that after Dr James Gregory's death, he was "recognized as the first consulting physician in Scotland".‪ ‬An elder of the Church of Scotland, he also wrote The man of faith: or the harmony of Christian faith and Christian character (1835),‪[3]‬ which he pretended to distribute freely. In 1841, he was partially paralyzed, but was able to return to his practice of medicine.
René Théophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826).   French physician.
Considered father of thoracic medicine;introduced practice of auscultation with the stethoscope, which he invented (c.1819). Published De l'auscultation mediate (1819); Professor at College de France (1822); physician at Hopital de la Charite, Paris (1823).
He became a lecturer at the Collège de France in 1822 and professor of medicine in 1823. His final appointments were that of Head of the Medical Clinic at the Hôpital de la Charité and Professor at the Collège de France. He died of tuberculosis in 1826 at the age of 45.
Clemens Maria Franz (Friedrich) Freiherr (Baron) von Bönninghausen (Herinckhave near Fleringen, 12 March 1785 – Münster, 26 January 1864) was a lawyer, Dutch and Prussian civil servant, agriculturalist, botanist, physician and pioneer in the field of the homeopathy. Bönninghausen's Therapeutic Pocketbook of 1846 was the first homeopathic repertory to grade individual remedies by their strength of relationship with each symptom, and each other. This von Bönninghausen method has remained in use until the present day.
In 1827, Bönninghausen contracted tuberculosis, followed by an intractable lung disease. Certain that he was about to die, he began writing farewell letters to his friends. One of them, friend and fellow botanist Carl Ernst August Weihe urged him to use the herb Pulsatilla, believed to be the cure of his ailment. Von Bönninghausen was cured, and thus became a convert to the new therapy. In less than two years he wrote seven extensive works.
He became a close associate and confidant of his teacher Samuel Hahnemann, founder of the homeopathy, who admired Bönninghausen's ability to systematize the expanding homeopathic knowledge of materia medica. Hahnemann was such enthusiastic that he called him his Lieblingsschüler (Favourite student). He said: "Am I to become sick myself, then I would trust no other physician in the world, except for him."
He was decorated as Knight in the Légion d'honneur.
George Cheyne Shattuck (1783-1854).  Philanthropist, Physician.
George Cheyne Shattuck graduated at Dartmouth in 1803 and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1807, and became a successful physician in Boston. He was at one time president of the Massachusetts medical society. Dr. Shattuck, by his will, devised more than $60,000 to charities. He contributed largely to Dartmouth college, and built its observatory, which he furnished with valuable instruments. "Shattuck school," at Faribault, Minnesota, a collegiate boarding-school under the auspices of the Protestant Episcopal church, of which Dr. Shattuck was a liberal patron, was named for him. He received the degree of LL.D. from Dartmouth in 1853. Dr. Shattuck published two Boylston prize dissertations, entitled "Structure and Physiology of the Skin" (Boston, 1808) and "Causes of Biliary Secretions" (1808), and "Yellow Fever of Gibraltar in 1828," from the French (1839).
Samuel Tuke (1784-1857).  American physician. 
Son of Henry Tuke. Quaker.  He wrote an account in 1813 of the York Retreat, Description of the Retreat, containing a report on the principles of 'moral therapy', which were considered to be the basis of the therapeutic environment there. Written at the request of his father, the work focused on the abuses common in the madhouses of the time, and gave direction to the urgent need for reform.  His son, James Hack Tuke, aided in the management of the York Retreat, and later focused on famine relief aid to Ireland.
William Prout (1785 -1850). 
English chemist trained as a physician, but very early became interested in the chemistry of living organisms. Most of Prout's original research and thought involved the chemistry of nutrition. In 1827, he suggested dividing foods into the three large classifications-carbohydrates, fats, and proteins-that are still used by nutritionists today.
John Lambert Richmond (1785-1855).  Baptist clergyman and physician.
It was during such a service, on Apr. 22, 1827, that he was called to a patient on whom he performed the first successful Cæsarean operation to be reported in the medical press of the United States. The patient was a young colored woman, bearing her first child. A monument was erected in his honor at Newton, Ohio, in 1912. Richmond's success in his famous operation was apparently not due solely to good fortune. He was skillful in such difficult surgical procedures as plastic surgery, indeed had considerable mechanical skill.
Joseph Jackson Lister (1786-1869). English optician.
Wine merchant by trade. Investigated principles of construction of the object glasses of microscopes and discovered fundamental principle (law of the aplanatic foci) of the modern instrument (1830); first to ascertain true form of red corpuscleof mammalian blood (1834).  Founder member of the Microscopical Society.  Father of Joseph Lister.
Sir John Richardson (1787-1865).  Scottish naturalist and explorer.
In service of Royal Navy (1807-55); surgeon and naturalist to Sir John Franklin's polar expeditions (1819-22, 1825-27); separatingfrom Franklin, explored coast to the Coppermine River and Great Slave Lake (1826); conducted search expedition for Franklin (1848-49), exploring region between estuary of Mackenzie River and Cape Kendall. Author of Fauna Boreali-Americana (1829-37) and works on ichthyology and polar exploration.
Marshall Hall (1790–1857), notable English physiologist who contributed with anatomical understanding and proposed a number of techniques in medical science. A devout Christian, his religious thoughts were collected in the biographical book Memoirs of Marshall Hall, by his widow (1861). He was also an abolitionist who opposed slavery on religious grounds. He believed slavery to be a sin against God and denial of the Christian faith.
Amalie Sieverking (1794-1859) Founder of the female diaconate at Kaiserswerth.
Member of the Hamburg patriciate, was a major Protestant philanthropic pioneer. Traditionally coupled with such male orthodox philanthropists as Theodor Fliedner (1800-1864), founder of the female diaconate at Kaiserswerth, and Johann Hinrich Wichern (1808-1881), creator of the Inner Mission. Sieveking's importance to women's philanthropy and to a distinctively female style of organization has only recently been recognized. It is in this capacity that she emerged as a central figure to the revolutionary epoch; she was both a social innovator and a political reactionary.
Karl Ernest Ritter von Baer (1792-1876). 
An Estonian embryologist famous for his discovery of the mammalian ovum (1827), notochord, etc.; elucidated principle of epigenesist, and who made a significant contribution to the systematic study of the development of animals.
Prince Alexander Leopold Franz Emmerich of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (17 August 1794 – 17 November 1849) was a German priest and reputed miracle-worker.‪ ‬He was an aristocrat renowned in his youth for his piety and ordained a priest in the Roman Catholic church shortly after he came of age. Unlike his predecessors he discovered his healing powers early in life after a series of recorded incidents. The priest-prince himself, who was still only twenty-seven years old, was besieged by crowds demanding cures. He also became a focus of attention for angry physicians - by this time organized into a profession more self-confident and arrogant than before - who saw their means of monies and livelihood diminishing. Some of these, even in Catholic Bavaria, also had an idealistic contempt for 'superstition' and the church remained in its usual ambivalent position when confronted by a junior priest popularly regarded as a saint.
Reverend Sylvester Graham (July 5, 1794 – September 11, 1851)
Revered Sylvester Graham was another Christian practitioner of nature cure as well as having invented and becoming famous for his Graham Crackers in 1829. Graham was a Presbyterian minister and avid vegetarian, who promoted the use of unsifted and coarsely ground wheat flour for its high fiber content. The flour was nicknamed "graham flour" after Minister Graham, the main ingredient in the crackers. In 1831 and 1832, at the invitation of New York's temperance leadership, the Philadelphia activist delivered lectures on the relationship between diet and disease. New Yorkers, Graham argued, had been fatally weakened in their ability to resist epidemics by the improper eating habits spawned by big-city life. This was later proven when the infamous influenza pandemic swept through the United States in 1918, killing millions. Graham opposed the use of stimulants--not only liquor, wine, and cider but tea, coffee, and tobacco. He denounced urban bakers who used 'refined' flour--stripped of husks and dark oleaginous germ and whitened with 'chemical agents' because it baked more quickly than traditional bread, even though the result was an almost crustless loaf without granular texture or nutritional value. He railed, too, against marketplace milk, much of which came from cows fed on leftover distillery mash (swill), with the anemic, liquor-inflected product made presentable by the addition of chalk, plaster of Paris, and molasses.
Graham had many devoted followers, known as Grahamites, who followed his principles, which included temperance, sexual restraint, and baths, in addition to vegetarianism. He was so famous that his lectures on proper living were attended by thousands, and he was able to hold his audiences spellbound. He had many disciples who also worked diligently to further the vegetarian cause. When the British Vegetarian Society was founded in 1847, he helped found a similar group, the American Vegetarian Society. His Graham Journal of Health and Longevity preached his principles of good health.
Sir Robert Christison (1797-1882).  Scottish toxicologist and physician. 
His fame as a toxicologist and medical jurist, together with his work on the pathology of the kidneys and on fevers, secured him a large private practice, and he succeeded to a fair share of the honors that commonly attend the successful physician, being appointed physician to Queen Victoria in 1848 and receiving a baronetcy in 1871. Among the books which he published were a treatise on Granular Degeneration of the Kidneys (1839), and a Commentary on the Pharmacopoeias of Great Britain (1842).
Nathan Ryno Smith (1797-1877).  Surgeon. 
Son of Nathan Smith.  Studied medicine under his father at Yale, graduated in 1817, received his M.D. degree in 1820. In 1824 he began the practice of surgery in Burlington, Vermont, and in 1825 he was appointed Professor of Surgery and Anatomy in the University of Vermont.  Became first Professor and Chair of Anatomy at Jefferson Medical School, Philadelphia (1826-27).  In 1827 he was called to the chair of surgery in the medical department of the University of Maryland, but he resigned in 1828 and became Professor of the practice of medicine in Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky. In 1840 he resumed his chair in the University of Maryland, which he held until 1870. Nathan Ryno Smith, whose commanding presence and gentlemanly manner earned him the nickname "The Emperor," guided the medical school's Department of Surgery for the next fifty years. During that time, he devoted thirty years to the development and perfection of what he considered to be his greatest surgical accomplishment, the invention of his anterior splint for treatment of fractures of the thigh. He also invented an instrument for the easy and safe performance of the operation of lithotomy.
Author: Physiological Essay on Digestion (New York, 1825), "Address to Medical Graduates of the University of Maryland" (Baltimore, 1828), Diseases of the Internal Ear, from the French of Jean Antoine Saissy, with supplement (1829), Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries (1832-35), Treatment of Fractures of the Lower Extremities by the Use of the Anterior Suspensory Apparatus (1867).  Articles published in the American Journal of Medicine.
Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866). English physician. Quaker.  First to describe (1832) Hodgkin's disease.
He brought the first stethoscope [invented by René Théophile Hyacinthe Laennec, see entry] to an English teaching hospital, became the first Lecturer of a course in pathology, and founded and became the first curator of a pathology museum (where he classified and labeled all the specimens). His Quaker upbringing brought a keen sense of humanity to his medical practice. Beginning his life as a doctor in 1825, having qualified as a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, he received an appointment as physician to the London dispensary where the desperately poor of the almost one million population of London were treated.
Vincent Priessnitz (1799 - 1851) Hydropathist.
Vincenz Priessnitz, also written Prießnitz (sometimes in German Vinzenz, in English Vincent, in Czech Vincenc; 4 October 1799 – 26 November 1851) was a peasant farmer in Gräfenberg, Austrian Silesia, who is generally considered the founder of modern hydrotherapy, which is used in alternative and orthodox medicine. Priessnitz stressed remedies such as suitable food, air, exercise, rest and water, over conventional medicine.‪[1][2][3]‬ He is thus also credited with laying the foundations of what became known as Nature Cure, although it has been noted that his main focus was on hydrotherapeutic techniques.‪ ‬ Priessnitz's name first became widely known in the English-speaking world through the publications and lecture tours of Captain R. T. Claridge in 1842 and 1843, after he had stayed at Grafenberg in 1841.‪[2][3]‬ However, Priessnitz was already a household name on the European continent, where Richard Metcalfe, in his 1898 biography, stated: "there are hundreds of establishments where the water-cure is carried out on the principles laid down by Priessnitz".‪[6]‬ Indeed, Priessnitz's fame became so widespread that his death was reported in the as far away as New Zealand.
Sir Charles Locock (1799-1875).  Scottish obstetric physician.  Physician-Accoucheur to Queen Victoria.
For three years Locock was resident private pupil of Sir Benjamin Brodie in London, and afterwards graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 1821. Brodie recommended him to devote himself specially to midwifery, and he was fortunate in receiving the commendations of Dr. Gooch, who was retiring from practical midwifery. After 1825 he rapidly rose to the first rank, and long had the best practise in London as an accoucheur. In 1843-5 he lectured at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and was for many years physician to the Westminster Lying-in Hospital. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1836, and was a member of its council in 1840-1-2. In 1840 he was appointed first physician-accoucheur to Queen Victoria, and attended at the birth of all her children. Besides contributing some practical articles to the Cyclopæ dia of Medicine and to the Library of Medicine, he made a valuable contribution to medicine by the discovery of the efficacy of bromide of potassium in epilepsy (see Reports of Discussions, Royal Med.-Chir. Society; Lancet and Medical Times, 23 May 1857). In 1857 he was created a baronet, although he declined the honour in 1840. He was president of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in 1857, was elected F.R.S. and created D.C.L Oxon. in 1864.
Constantine J. Hering (January 1, 1800 – July 23, 1880) was an early pioneer of homeopathy in the United States.
Constantine Hering, the "Father" of American Homeopathy, was born at the town of Oschatz, Germany. He studied medicine at Leipzig University as did Hahnemann. This statement of Hering's is accompanied by a note from the editor, Dr. Hempel.
"As it would be absurd for a philosophical Christian to reject the doctrine of original sin, so it is absurd for any one who professes to have a clear perception of Homoeopathy, to reject the doctrine of an hereditary morbific miasm. Both these doctrines must stand and fall together; and, as truth is one and indivisible, they both hold and illustrate each other. If we admit with Rousseau that everything which leaves the hand of God, is perfectly holy, then the first created man must have been perfectly pure, and must have appeared in the image and likeness of his maker. It seems to me absurd to suppose that something perfectly pure can, of itself, by its own free and orderly development, produce things impure and evil. We do not know how far God permitted an adaptation to evil to co-exist in the first man together with an adaptation of goodness. But this we certainly know that evil fruits must be the results of evil forces.
Theodor Fliedner (21 January 1800, Eppstein - 4 October 1864, Kaiserswerth). Missionary.
A German Lutheran minister and founder of Lutheran deaconess training that rejuvenated the emerging nursing profession. In the Indies he became acquainted with the ancient church office of deacon while spending time among the Mennonites. In England he met with Elizabeth Fry, who demonstrated her work among her nation's impoverished and imprisoned people. He returned home not only with a large financial collection for his municipality but also with new ideas about social work among the disadvantaged. Fliedner's movement has been cited as the model for the Inner Mission movement which Johann Hinrich Wichern developed.‪ ‬Because of these efforts, deaconess institutes arose in Paris, Strasbourg, Utrecht, and elsewhere. By the time of his death in 1864, there were 30 motherhouses and 1600 deaconesses worldwide. By the middle of the 20th century, there were over 35,000 deaconesses serving in parishes, schools, hospitals, and prisons throughout the world.
A sign of the international respect Fliedner garnered is that his most famous pupil came from outside Germany. English nursing reformer Florence Nightingale visited in 1849, finding, "The nursing was nil and the hygiene horrible." She was impressed by the religious devotion and noted most of the deaconesses were of peasant origin.) She later returned for nursing studies and graduated in 1851. Today, one of Düsseldorf's hospitals bears her name.
He is commemorated as a renewer of society in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on October 4.
Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (February 16, 1802 – January 16, 1866) was an American spiritual teacher.
Quimby was a philosopher, magnetizer, mesmerist, healer, and inventor, who resided in Belfast, Maine, and had an office in Portland, Maine. Quimby's work is widely recognized as leading to the New Thought movement.‪ ‬
Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, has sometimes been cited as having used Quimby as inspiration for theology. Eddy was a patient of Quimby's and shared his view that disease is rooted in a mental cause. Because of its theism, Christian Science differs from the teachings of Quimby.
Dorothea Lynde Dix (April 4, 1802 – July 17, 1887) was an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.
Edward Rigby (1804-1860).  Obstetrician.  First President of the Obstetrical Society of London.
Educated at the grammar school, Norwich, under Valpy, Rigby was a schoolfellow of Sir James Brooke (afterwards rajah of Sarawak) and Sir Archdale Wilson. In 1821 he attended Norfork and Norwich Hospital, and next year matriculated at Edinburgh University. He graduated M.D. 1 Aug. 1825, on his twenty-first birthday (the earliest age then possible). After graduation he spent some time in Dublin, and in 1826 went to Berlin University to study midwifery. From Berlin he passed to Heidelberg, and was kindly received by Naegele. In 1830 he translated Naegele's work On the Mechanism of Parturition, which greatly advanced the science of midwifery in England. In 1830 he became a house pupil at the Lying-in Hospital in York Road, Lambeth, where he subsequently held the appointments of junior and senior physician successively. In 1831 he was admitted a licentiate of the College of Physicians, and in 1843 became a fellow. In 1831 he began to lecture on midwifery at St. Thomas's, and from 1838 to 1848 he lectured on the same subject at St. Bartholomew's. He was examiner in midwifery in London University from 1841 to 1860. He was regarded as the first obstetric physician in London after Sir Charles Locock retired from practice. When the Obstetrical Society was founded in 1859 he was elected its first president.  (It met for the last time in July 1907, in which year it was absorbed into the Royal Society of Medicine.) He was a fellow of the Linnean Society, and a member of many foreign medical societies.
Dr James Manby Gully (14 March 1808 – 1883), was a Victorian medical doctor, well known for practising hydrotherapy, or the "water cure". Along with his partner James Wilson, he founded a very successful "hydropathy" (as it was then called) clinic in Malvern, Worcestershire, which had many notable Victorians, including such figures as Charles Darwin and Alfred, Lord Tennyson, as clients.
Gully's clinic using Malvern water in Great Malvern, and those that followed, were largely responsible for Malvern's rapid development from a village to a large town. He is also remembered as a suspect in the Charles Bravo poisoning case.
Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860). The eminent physiologist.
Was instrumental in setting up King's College Hospital. Physician, brother of J. H. Todd; Education: TCD, BA 1829; Lecturer in anatomy, London; DM, Oxon., 1836; Professor of Physiology at King's College, London, 1836-53; Gulstonian, 1839; Lumleian lect., 1849; FRS, 1838; examiner for London University, 1839-40; co-fnd. King's College Hospital, 1840; also St. John's House Institute for nurses; FRCS, 1844; large private practice; revolutionised fever treatment; numerous writings on medical science; ed., The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology (1835-59).
Dr. James Rogers Newton (1810-) Healer.
Dr. Newton was born in Newport, Rhode Island, on September 8th, 1810, and was a lineal descendant of John Rogers, who was burned at the stake, the first English Protestant martyr to be executed by Mary I of England. At an early age he became aware of possessing the gift of healing, which he demonstrated amply throughout his adult life.  He became conscious of new powers, new capabilities, wonderful and strange, and opening a glorious avenue of usefulness; and his young, enthusiastic spirit burned for the work. 
In 1853, Dr. Newton was a passenger on the steamer, Golden Gate, from Panama to San Francisco. The second day yellow fever broke out among the 1,300 passengers which also included several physicians. The fever raged for eight days, with seventy-four persons dying and their bodies being consigned to the ocean. The ship's surgeon lost every patient but one that he attended. Dr. Newton lost none.
In 1858, Dr. Newton commenced practice as a public healer in Cincinnati, Ohio. Despite the usual amount of incredulity and skepticism attendant on the introduction of a new system of curing disease, virtually all who saw his work were compelled to believe. After performing some very wonderful cures, his fame and practice were so great that his rooms were daily crowded with invalids. His average number of daily healings the first several months was about one hundred per day.
Dr. Newton's motto was, God is love, and love is the link that binds in one, all human souls to God. Newton had no doubts whether he would cure or not. 'The difference between him and us was that he was conscious of his power, while we were conscious of our want of power.'
At a meeting in England, Dr. Newton stated, 'As to the power of healing, it is merely an illustration of the power of love. When any sick person comes before me, I lay my hands on that person and feel that I love him; tell him I love him and if the patient is not antagonistic, he is almost sure to be healed because this opens their heart to me and the disease must depart.' Throughout his healing career, Dr. Newton was very well liked by all class of people. He had no difficulty relating to anyone that he met.
Sir James Young Simpson (1811-1870). Scottish physician, one of the founders of modern gynecology.
First to use ether as anesthetic in obstetric practice (1847); discovered anesthetic property of chloroform (1847), published Account of a New Anaesthetic Agent, and was first to use it in obstetric practice; appointed one of queen's physicians for Scotland (1847); introduced iron wire sutures and acupressure; developed the Simpson forceps; wrote on medical history, fetal pathology, hermaphroditism. Sir James Young Simpson was one of the most prominent obstetricians of modern times. He introduced the terms ovariotomy and occydynia.

Antoine Béchamp. Microbiologist

Pierre Jacques Antoine Béchamp (October 16, 1816 – April 15, 1908) was a French chemist and biologist now best known as a rival of Louis Pasteur. Béchamp did pioneering work in industrial chemistry, developing an efficient process to produce aniline dye which was central to the development of the synthetic dye industry. He also developed p-aminophenylarsonate, an organic arsenic compound used to treat parasitic diseases.

Béchamp's later life was consumed by a bitter and protracted dispute with Louis Pasteur. Initially, their rivalry centered on credit for discovery of fermentation and later grew to encompass competing ideas on microbiology, pathogenesis, and germ theory. Béchamp believed that living entities called "microzymes" created bacteria in response to host and environmental factors; he did not believe that bacteria could invade a healthy host and create disease on their own. Pasteur's competing vision became widely accepted by scientists, and Béchamp sank into obscurity, although his beliefs have been continuously promoted by a small group of dedicated advocates.

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910). Nurse, missionary.
The English nurse Florence Nightingale was the founder of modern nursing and made outstanding contributions to knowledge of public health.  She gave nursing a highly favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.‪ ‬
Miss Nightingale systemized a nursing service for the first time for the English army during the Crimean war, and gave the first demonstration any country had seen of a 'trained gentlewoman who was not a religious Sister', at the head of an army nursing staff, having orderlies as well as nurses under her command. During her stay in the Crimea she established, besides the nursing service, laundries and diet kitchens; she brought about the installation of extensive sanitary engineering works; provided supplies of every kind,— clothing, food, equipment, and surgical dressings for the patients and the nurses. The British nation in gratitude to Miss Nightingale gave her a large sum of money which she used to found the training school for nurses of which she had always had the vision. For many years Miss Nightingale had a world wide and unparalleled influence not only in hospital and nursing matters, but in general questions relating to health and sickness, for all the world laid its problems before her for advice. The International Committee of the Red Cross was organized in Miss Nightingale's day and owed much to her example and suggestions.
David Livingstone (1813-1873). Scottish missionary, physician and explorer.
Operative in cotton mill from age of ten; ordained missionary (1840). Embarked as missionary, reached Bechuanaland in Africa (July 1841); repulsed by Boers in missionary efforts.  He later organized exploration expeditions into interior; discovered Lake Ngami (1849), Zambezi River (1851); on great expedition northwardfrom Cape Town through west Central Africa to Luanda and back to Quilimane (1853-56) collected vast amount of information and discovered Victoria Falls of the Zambezi (1855); welcomed back in Britain with enthusiasm; published his Missionary Travels (1857).  With mutual regrets he severed connection with missionary society. Returned as consul of Quilimane (1858-64); commanded expeditions exploring Zambezi, Shire, and Rovuma rivers, discovered lakes Chilwa and Nyasa (1859); recalled (1863) and on second visit to England published The Zambesi and its Tributaries (1865) with intent to expose Portuguese slave traders and get missionary and commercial settlement established near head of the Rovuma. Led expedition to explore watershed of Central Africa and sources of Nile (1866); discovered lakes Mweru (1867) and Bangweulu (1868), explored country to Nyangwe on the Lualaba River, returned almost dying to Ujiji, where he was rescued (1871) by newspaper reporter Henry M. Stanley, saying "Dr. Livingstone, I presume."  Unable to persuade Livingstone to return to England, Stanley reequipped him and departed from him near Tabora on March 14, 1872. Livingstone sought source of Nile, pushing eastward to Unyanyembe, then south to village of Chitambo's (now in Zambia).  A month before his death, he wrote in his journal: "Nothing earthly will make me give up my work in despair. I encourage myself in the Lord my God, and go forward."  He was later found dead, kneeling in prayer.  The Last Journals of David Livingstone were published in 1874.  Livingstone was buried in great honor in London's Westminster Abbey.
Award: Royal Geographical Society Gold Medal, 1855.
Sir James Paget
(1814-1899).  English surgeon and pathologist. At St. Bartholomew's hospital, London, discovered (1834) Trichinella spiralis, the cause of trichinosis; Professoressor of anatomy at Royal College of Surgeons (1847-52); published Lectures on Surgical Pathology (1853); specialized in pathology of tumors and diseases of bones and joints; first to advocate enucleation of tumors; described (1877) osteitis deformans, later called Paget's disease; vice chancellor of University of London (1883-95). Successor to John Hunter in surgery and, with Rudolf Virchow, one of founders of modern science of pathology.
Crawford Williamson Long (1815-1878).  American physician, surgeon, anesthesiologist and pharmacist.
Crawford Williamson Long received his M.D. at the University of Pennsylvania in 1839. He performed the first surgical operation in general anesthesia induced by ether (8 operations between 1842 and 1846). Although William T.G. Morton is well-known for performing his historic anesthesia on October 18, 1846, C.W. Long is now known to be the first doing an ether-based anesthesia. After observing the same effects with ether that where already described by Humphrey Davy 1800 with nitrous oxide, C.W. Long used ether the first time on March 30, 1842 to remove two tumors from the neck of his patient, Mr. James M. Venable. The results of this trials where published several years (December 1849) later only being second after Mortons publication. An original copy of his publication is held in the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Rev. James Bovell, MD (1817–1880), Canadian physician and microscopst who was member of Royal College of Physicians. He was the mentor of William Osler, as well as an Anglican minister and religious author who wrote about natural theology.
Thomas Anderson (1819-1874) was an organic chemist. Born and brought up in Leith, near Edinburgh, the son of a physician, Anderson was educated at the High School of Leith, Edinburgh Academy and the University of Edinburgh, where he gained an MD degree in 1841.
Anderson is primarily remembered for his discovery of picoline (an isomer of aniline) and the base pyridine in a series of experiments carried out between 1848-1868 in which he distilled bone oil and investigated the concentrated fractions of organic bases created. He was also known at the time for his work on agriculture - he was chemist to the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland from 1848. In this role, he wrote Elements of Agricultural Chemistry (1860), considered to be an accurate picture of the state of science at the time, but otherwise largely unremarkable.  Anderson also looked at physiology in humans, particularly the chemical changes that occur in the body during physiological processes such as eating. In addition, Anderson worked for some time on codeine and other opiates, leading to his discovery of the composition of a number of alkaloids.
Robert Barnes (1817-1907).  English obstetrician. One of the pioneers of surgical gynaecology. Co-founder of the British Gynæcological Society.
He was one of the founders of the Obstetrical Society of London in 1858, and from 1865-1866 its president. With James Hobson Aveling (1825-1892), Robert Barnes founded the British Gynæcological Society in 1884, of which he was honorary chairman until his death. In 1907 both societies were fusioned as the Obstetrical and Gynaecological Section of the Royal Society of Medicine.
In 1874 he gave the Lumleian lectures On convulsive Diseases of Women; 1877-1878 censor at the College of Physicians. He was made honorary member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1883, of the Medical Society of London in 1893, and of the Royal Medical and Surgical in 1905. Of the large fortunes he amassed, he spent richly on scientific institutes, among them the pathological laboratory at the St. George's Hospital - which bears his name.
He published actively, and on a great variety of women's health concerns.
Associated eponyms: Barnes' bags or dilators; A series of graduated rubber bags for dilating the uterine cervix in cases where labour is to be induced; Barnes-Neville forceps, A forceps used for both mid and low deliveries;  obstetrical forceps.
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-1865).  Hungarian obstetrician.
Assistant in obstetric clinic in Vienna (1844-49); professor at Pest (1855-65). Along with American physician Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894), Ignaz Semmelweis was one of the first two doctors worldwide to recognize the contagious nature of puerperal fever (also known as childbed fever) and promote steps to eliminate it, thereby dramatically reducing maternal deaths (1847-49); became pioneer of antisepsis in obstetrics. Published Die Atiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbetfiebers (1861).
Priscilla Lydia Sellon, 1821-76, was a Anglican nun who played a part in the English Catholic Revivalist movement of the 19th century. In 1848 an order of Sisters of Mercy was founded by Miss Sellon, which had extensive epidemic experiences, and developed a well-planned hospital training. The frequency of epidemics is explained by the insanitary conditions generally prevalent. It was only after Murcheson, in 1838, had advanced the theory that disease was caused by filth, that cities began to install sewage systems.
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (1821-1902). Physician, Pathologist.
The German medical scientist, anthropologist, and politician Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow was the founder of the school of "cellular pathology," which forms the basis of modern pathology. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" because his work helped to discredit humourism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also known as the founder of social medicine and veterinary pathology, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine".‪ ‬
Virchow was born in Schievelbein in eastern Pomerania, Prussia (now Świdwin in Poland).‪ He was the only child of Carl Christian Siegfried Virchow (1785-1865) and Johanna Maria née Hesse (1785-1857). His father was a farmer and the city treasurer. Academically brilliant, he always topped in his classes and was fluent in German, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, English, Arabic, French, Italian, and Dutch.
Virchow is credited with many important discoveries. His most widely known scientific contribution is his cell theory, which built on the work of Theodor Schwann. In 1845, Virchow and John Bennett independently observed abnormal increase in white blood cells in patients. Virchow correctly identified the condition as blood disease, and named it leukämie in 1847 (later anglicised to leukemia).‪ In 1857, he was the first to describe a type of tumour called chordoma that originated from clivus (part of the skull).‪ ‬
Another significant credit relates to the discovery, made approximately simultaneously by Virchow and Charles Emile Troisier, that an enlarged left supraclavicular node is one of the earliest signs of gastrointestinal malignancy, commonly of the stomach, or less commonly, lung cancer. This has become known as Virchow's node and simultaneously Troisier's sign.‪ ‬
Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910).  American physician, born Bristol, England. To.U.S. (1832). M.D., Geneva Medical School of Western N.Y. (1849).
First woman doctor of medicine in modern times. She aspired to the Nightingale system in nursing, for she was intimately acquainted with Miss Nightingale, had often visited her, and had learned at first hand much of her nursing wisdom. She later founded the first medical school for women, which resulted in both greater acceptance of female physicians and stricter standards for medical schools as a whole. Opened private dispensary in New York (1853), which became incorporated (1857) into New York Infirmary for Women and Children; Woman's Medical College established there (1868). Settled in England (1869); Professor of gynecology in London School of Medicine for Women (1875-1907).  By the time of her death in 1910, the number of female doctors in the United States had risen to over 7,000.

Sebastian Kneipp (1821 Germany – 1897). Father of Naturopathy.

Of all barefoot Nature cures, the most renowned was the one initiated by the Bavarian pastor, Father Sebastian Kneipp, whose influence survives into this age of antibiotics. Father Kneipp had his interest kindled in youth by a chance reading of a hydropathist manual of Hahn. When studying for the priesthood in Munich he found that a fellow candidate with a similar ailment had been refused the health certificate without which a priest could not officiate, on the ground that his days were numbered. In some desperation the two men applied themselves to Hahn's manual and both regained their health. Thereafter in every parish to which he was sent, Father Kneipp practised the water cure, as modified by himself. In 1854 he became known as the 'cholera vicar' as a result of saving many lives in a village epidemic. His growing fame embarrassed his Dominican masters, who made him almoner of a convent at Wörishofen; but soon he was treating not only local peasants but Austrian grand dukes and French noblemen. All were ordered to walk barefoot in the morning dew. In 1890 arrived Baron Nathaniel Rothschild, with a retinue of cook, secretary and two servants. Those who rose early enough were rewarded by the sight of the Baron strolling bareheaded and barefooted in a near-by meadow. Father Kneipp is supposed to have told the Baron, at his first consultation, that a man of his type needed two stomachs.

Mary Baker Eddy (July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) was the founder of Christian Science, a new religious movement, in the United States in the latter half of the 19th century.
Eddy wrote the movement's textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published 1875), and in 1879 founded the Church of Christ, Scientist. She also founded the Christian Science Publishing Society (1898), which continues to publish a number of periodicals, including The Christian Science Monitor (founded in 1908).
Louis Pasteur (1822–1895): Inventor of the pasteurization method, a French chemist and microbiologist. He also solved the mysteries of rabies, anthrax, chicken cholera, and silkworm diseases, and contributed to the development of the first vaccines. The French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is famous for his germ theory and for the development of vaccines.  Developed process of food sterilization--pasteurization. Louis Pasteur was one of the most extraordinary scientists in history, leaving a legacy of scientific contributions which include an understanding of how microorganisms carry on the biochemical process of fermentation, the establishment of the causal relationship between microorganisms and disease, and the concept of destroying microorganisms to halt the transmission of communicable disease. These achievements led him to be called the founder of microbiology. Catholic.
Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). Austrian botanist.
The science of genetics can trace its origins to biologist Gregor Mendel. In meticulous studies with pea plants, Mendel acquired the experimental data necessary to formulate the laws of heredity.  Entered order of Augustinians at Brunn (1843); ordained (1847); taught in technical high school (1854-68); abbot (1868). Known for breeding experiments with peas in monastery garden (from 1856); discovered Mendel's laws of segregation and of independent assortment, based on his inference that heritable characteristics are paired units and that their appearance in hybridized offspring obeys statistical laws; his work was published by natural history society of Brunn (1866) but not widely recognized until brought into prominence by De Vries and others.
Daniel Hack Tuke (1827-95).  American physician. 
Brother of James Hack Tuke, co-wrote (with John Charles Bucknill) the important treatise, A Manual of Psychological Medicine, in 1858, and became a leading physician, dedicated to the study of insanity.  In the 1890s he became an examiner in mental physiology in the University of London and a Lecturer on insanity at Charing Cross Hospital. He was one of the founders and subsequently chairman of the 'After-Care Association,' set up in 1879 to rehabilitate female patients discharged from asylums.
Ellen Gould White (née Harmon; November 26, 1827 – July 16, 1915). Healer, Dietician, Theologian.
She was a prolific author and an American Christian pioneer. Along with other Sabbatarian Adventist leaders such as Joseph Bates and her husband James White, she formed what became known as the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The Smithsonian magazine named Ellen G. White among 100 Most Significant Americans‪[1]‬ in an acknowledgement of her influence on religion.‪ ‬
From 1844 to 1863 White experienced between 100 to 200 visions, typically in public places and meeting halls. In later life, the visions occurred at home during the night.‪ ‬White was a powerful and sought after preacher.‪ ‬While she has been perceived as having a strict and serious personality, perhaps due to her lifestyle standards, numerous sources describe her as a friendly person.‪ ‬
Joseph Lister     1827 - 1912
Joseph Lister's discovery of antisepsis has led some to divide the history of medicine into the eras "before Lister" and "after Lister."  His work did more to save lives in the hospital than any other in history.  Surprisingly, it took nearly a generation for his discovery to become accepted.  Born in a devout Quaker household, young Joseph learned about science at an early age.  Lister became one of the most beloved scientists and doctors in history.  He was knighted by the queen.  He was elected President of the Royal Society.  A food-borne pathogen Listeria was named after him.  His 80th birthday in 1907 was celebrated around the world. He credits Ignaz Semmelweis for earlier work in antiseptic treatment: "Without Semmelweis, my achievements would be nothing." A fervent Christian all his life, he confessed, "I am a believer in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity."

Jean Henri Dunant (8 May 1828 – 30 October 1910), also known as Henry Dunant was the founder the Red Cross, and the first recipient of Nobel Peace Prize.

The 1864 Geneva Convention was based on Dunant's ideas. In 1901 he received the first Nobel Peace Prize together with Frédéric Passy, making Dunant the first Swiss Nobel laureate.
Dunant was a Swiss businessman and social activist. During a business trip in 1859, he was witness to the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino in modern-day Italy. He recorded his memories and experiences in the book A Memory of Solferino which inspired the creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1863.

Auguste Henri Jacob, known as 'Le Zouave', a French soldier who became healer and clairvoyant (1828-1913).

This next generation of Christian healers belongs to a different tradition. Born in central France in 1828, and probably of Jewish ancestry, Jacob first found fame as a trombonist in the military band of the Zouaves. He then became interested in the new creed of Spiritualism, but did not profess any faith in a personal God.
He began a career of healing mediumship, claiming that he saw spirits ministering to the patients who called upon him and that they prescribed healing. He not only refused to charge for his healing, but also declined freewill offerings, even when it was requested that they be devoted to healing the poor.
Jacob's method of healing often resembled that of modern evangelists—a forceful command to be well. In other cases he simply stared at the patient. Many spectacular cures were reported. He was not always successful, and in some cases he simply dismissed the sufferer with the remark, "I can do nothing for your disease." In his later years he recommended natural health treatment and condemned the use of alcohol. He ascribed his own healing powers to "the spirits of white magnetism."

Clara A. Swain (1834-1910).  Physician, Medical Missionary.
Pioneer woman medical missionary in India, was born in Elmira, N. Y.  She is said to have been the first fully accredited woman physician to be sent by any missionary society to the non-Christian world. In 1871 the Nawab of Rampore gave an estate adjoining the mission property as a site for a hospital for women. A dispensary building was completed in May 1873, and in January 1874 the first woman's hospital in India was opened. Miss Swain continued her work at Bareilly until March 1885, when at the request of the Rajah of Khetri, Rajputana, she became physician to the Rani and the ladies of the palace.
William Williams Keen Jr. (1837-1932).
American surgeon, U.S. army, in Civil War; practiced at Philadelphia (from 1866); Professor at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia (1889-1907).  Pioneered in neurosurgery; first US brain surgeon; edited Gray's Anatomy, 1887 and Surgery: Its Principles and Practice (1906-1921). Theistic evolutionist.
Alexander Johnston Chalmers Skene (1837-1900).  Scottish pioneer gynecologist, physician, medical researcher.
A college and hospital administrator whose lifetime of achievement had a broad impact on the medical profession.  He founded the American Gynecological Society (president, 1886-1887) and the International Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics (honorary president, Geneva, 1896), and acted as president of the Medical Society of Kings County, 1874-75, the New York Obstetrical Society, 1877-79, and the Brooklyn Gynecological Society, 1891-92. He also performed the first successful operations of gastroelytrotomy and that of craniotomy.
At nineteen years of age Skene left his Aberdeen, Scotland home and came to America. He studied medicine in Toronto in 1860 and attended the University of Michigan in 1861 and 1862. The following year he received the M.D. degree from the Long Island College Hospital Medical School. His practice, begun in Brooklyn in 1864, was interrupted by active duty in the Federal army as assistant surgeon in the volunteer corps. He taught gynecology at the New York Post-Graduate Hospital from 1883 to 1886, and was consultant to a number of dispensaries and hospitals. He was for many years attached to the Long Island College Hospital, where he served as teacher, operator, dean, and president.
His discovery in 1880 of what are now called Skene's urethral glands gave him an international reputation and an assured place in the history of gynecology. He also is known to have devised thirty-one surgical instruments. He opened a private sanitarium in 1884 in Brooklyn with Dr. W. M. Thalon, and, in 1899, Skene's Hospital for Self-supporting Women.
He was associate editor of the Archives of Medicine, 1883-84, the American Medical Digest, 1884-89, and the New York Gynaecological and Obstetrical Journal, 1891-1900. He has to his credit more than one hundred medical papers (see Browning and Schroeder, post), and he was the author of Diseases of the Bladder and Urethra in Women (1878); Education and Culture as Related to the Health and Diseases of Women (1889); Electro-haemostasis in Operative Surgery (1889); Medical Gynecology (1895); and Treatise on the Diseases of Women (1888). One mediocre novel, True to Themselves, published in 1897, came from his pen.
Sir William Henry Perkin (12 March 1838 – 14 July 1907) Chemist.
Was an English chemist best known for his accidental discovery, at the age of 18, of the first aniline dye, mauveine. The first human-made organic dye, mauveine, was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856, the result of a failed attempt at the total synthesis of quinine. Suitable as a dye of silk and other textiles, it was patented by Perkin, who the next year opened a dyeworks mass-producing it at Greenford on the banks of the Grand Union Canal in London. It was originally called aniline purple or Tyrian purple, the name of an ancient natural dye derived from mollusks. In 1859, it attained the name mauve in England via the French name for the mallow flower, and chemists later called it mauveine. By 1870, its great demand succumbed to newer synthetic colors in the synthetic dye industry launched by mauveine. A chemical revolution began both in the textile industries but also in medicine, again the result of the Cinchona bark.
Isabella Thoburn (1840-1901) Educator and missionary to India. 
In 1869 the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church was founded in Boston, Mass., and under its auspices, on Nov. 3, accompanied by Dr. Clara A. Swain [q.v.], she sailed for India, arriving in Bombay on Jan. 7, 1870. The city of Lucknow in Oudh became the center of her activities. Into the education of the girls and young women of India she threw herself with zeal and courage. On Apr. 18, in Aminabad bazaar, she began a school with six girls and herself the only teacher, while a Christian youth guarded the group with a stout bamboo. From a day school it developed into a boarding school, then into a high school, and finally into a college for women-now the Isabella Thoburn College, the women's college of Lucknow University. Buying the beautiful estate of the Ruby Garden (Lal Bagh) with its seven acres from a Mohammedan nobleman of the old kingdom of Oudh, she erected her buildings. The college that came into being was for Indian and Eurasian, Hindu, Mohammedan, and Christian alike; no religious or racial prejudice was to mar its peace and fellowship.-Oscar MacMillan Buck.  "Isabella Thoburn."Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.
Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards (1842-1911).  American chemist.  Sanitarian. 
The founder of home economics, Ellen Henrietta Swallow was the first woman admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. For twenty-seven years she was employed by MIT, where she taught chemistry and developed methods for the analysis of air, water, and consumer products. She introduced biology to MIT's curriculum and founded the oceanographic institute, known as Woods Hole. In addition, she tested home furnishings and foods for toxic contaminants, investigated water pollution and designed safe sewage systems. Her work as a scientist and educator led to improvements in the home and opened the door to scientific professions for women.
In 1868, she was accepted to Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York and graduated with a B.S. degree in 1870. She was then accepted at the MIT as a special student in chemistry (i.e. she was not charged tuition, but MIT was not obligated to her either) and graduated in 1873 with her second B.S. degree. That same year, she received an M.S. degree in chemistry from Vassar. She continued her studies at MIT for two more years, but was not awarded the Ph.D. degree, as was later claimed by her husband, because her professors did not want the first Ph.D. degree in chemistry from MIT to be awarded to a woman.
In 1875 she married Professor Robert H. Richards, head of the department of mining engineering at MIT. She started working with her husband on the chemistry of ore analysis and this work led to her being elected in 1879 the first woman member of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. In 1876 she successfully petitioned the Woman's Education Association of Boston to contribute funds to open the Woman's Laboratory at MIT. Beginning in 1876, she was head of the science section of the Society to Encourage Studies at Home. In 1882, she co-founded the Association of Collegiate Alumnae (later known as the American Association of University Women).
Author: The Chemistry of Cooking (1882), Home Sanitation: A Manual for Housekeepers (1887),  The Cost of Living (1899); The Cost of Food (1901); The Cost of Shelter (1905); Sanitation in Daily Life (1907); The Cost of Cleanness (1908); Laboratory Notes on Industrial Water Analysis (1908); Euthenics: The Science of Controllable Environment (1910); and Conservation by Sanitation (1911).
 "Distiguished Women of Past and Present: Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards, (1842-1911)
Sir Patrick Manson (1844-1922). Scottish parasitologist.
The father of tropical medicine.  Manson earned his MD from Aberdeen Medical School in 1865.  Manson was posted to Formosa (Taiwan) as medical officer for the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs in the southwestern port of Takao (Kaohsiung). It was Manson's responsibility to inspect ships and treat crews, which gave him ample opportunity to observe tropical diseases.  He later settled at Amoy (Xiamen), a port on the Chinese mainland, as head of Baptist Missionary Hospital and engaged in private practice (1871); settled in Hong Kong (1883); instituted school of medicine which developed into university and medical school of Hong Kong. To London (1890); instrumental in foundation (1899) of London School of Tropical Medicine and taught there (to 1914). First to enunciate (1877-78) hypothesis that the mosquito was the host of the malarial parasite at one stage of its existence, and thus an active agent in spreading malaria.
He wrote Manual of Tropical Diseases which promptly became a bestseller in its field. He retired in 1912 to fish in Ireland but returned to London at the beginning of the First World War. Despite crippling attacks of gout he continued to take a lively interest in medical education until his death in 1922.
Sir Thomas Barlow (1845-1945)
Physician to England's royal families during the reigns of Queen Victoria and King Edward VII, was the first to diagnosis the disease of "scurvy rickets" in infants, which became known to the German medical profession as "Barlow's disease." He served as president of the Royal College of Physicians here from 1910 to 1915 and was president of the International Medical Congress here in 1913. He had received honorary degrees from several universities, including Harvard, Montreal and Toronto.  -United Press, January 14, 1945.
Thomas John Barnardo (1845-1905).  British physician and philanthropist, born in Ireland.
Known for his establishment (from 1870) in England and British possessions of over 90 Dr. Barnardo's Homes for orphaned and destitute children.
Victor Clarence Vaughan (1851-1929) Physician.
Dr. Victor Clarence Vaughan played an important role in easing epidemics in military camps during World War I, a war in which more Americans succumbed to disease than to combat injuries.
Victor Clarence Vaughan was best known as the Dean of the University of Michigan Medical School from 1891 to 1920. A biochemist, hygienist, public health authority, medical educator, and administrator, Vaughan was a leading figure in US medicine during the late 19th century and through the Progressive Era. For example, in 1889 (along with Michigan bacteriologist Frederick Novy), he developed one of the first systematic courses on bacteriology and germ theory for medical students. He was instrumental in the implementation of medical educational reforms years before the landmark, infamous Flexner report on medical education of 1910. In the laboratory, Vaughan applied biochemical methods to identifying putrefactive bacteria in food products in order to significantly reduce the incidence of "ptomaine poisoning" in Michigan and beyond.
Harry Sewall.  "Victor Clarence Vaughan."Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936:  [Vaughan] published several … books and upwards of two hundred articles, carried on private practice for many years, became a medico-legal expert in toxicology with a national reputation, and was the founder of Physician and Surgeon (1879), of which he was managing editor for sometime, and the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine (1915). He was president of the American Medical Association (1914-15) and of the American Tuberculosis Association (1920), and a member of numerous scientific and other learned societies in the United States and abroad. In 1921-22 and 1925-26 he was chairman of the division of medical sciences of the National Research Council. Throughout the World War he served in the office of the surgeon-general and on the executive committee of the general medical board of the Council of National Defense, rising to the rank of colonel. He later received a Distinguished Service Medal for his work in epidemiology and was made knight of the Legion of Honor by the French government.
John Harvey Kellogg, M.D. (February 26, 1852 – December 14, 1943) was an American medical doctor in Battle Creek, Michigan, who ran a sanitarium using holistic methods, with a particular focus on nutrition, enemas and exercise. Kellogg was an advocate of vegetarianism and is best known for the invention of the breakfast cereal known as corn flakes with his brother, Will Keith Kellogg.‪
He led in the establishment of the American Medical Missionary College. The College, founded in 1895, operated until 1910 when it merged with Illinois State University.

Johann Kuenzle (1857-1945) Switzerland's most famous herbalist.
Johann Künzle was a catholic priest and also a popular healer. His small book, Herbs and Weeds (published in 1911 and revised in 1975), sold over one million copies in Europe. He was a student of Sebastian Kneipp (1821 Germany – 1897), who was a Bavarian priest and one of the founders of the Naturopathic medicine movement. He is most commonly associated with the "Kneipp Cure" form of hydrotherapy, a system of healing involving the application of water through various methods, temperatures and pressures.
Kuenzle learned both from contemporary local herb authorities and from the long history of recorded herbal information, such as that of the famous 16th-century German authority Jacob Dietrich. Over the past 100 years, the ingredients of Kuenzle's formulas have been used by millions and confirmed with scientific techniques. The individual herbs have been subjected to chemical analysis, pharmacological testing, and, in many cases, clinical trials. The Kuenzle formulas as they come down to us today are derived from a long history of herbal wisdom, have been widely used by millions of Europeans over many decades, and are confirmed in their safety and efficacy by modern research.

The most famous Swiss herbalist, Rreverend Johann Kuenzle, whose formulas have been sold for over 75 years in Europe, taught the virtue of herbs as scriptural medicines.

William Allen Sturge (1850-1919). English physician.
William passed the Primary Examination of the College of Surgeons at Bristol Medical School in 1870. He went to London in 1871 to continue his studies at University College.  he resumed his medical studies and completed his M.D. (London) in 1875.
After holding the post of Physician's Assistant, he became a resident Medical Officer and subsequently Registrar of the National Hospital for Paralysis and Epilepsy. It was there that he laid the foundation of a wide and thoughtful survey of neurological diseases. Dr. Sturge's name is associated with the widely known syndrome - Sturge-Weber syndrome.  He postulated that the patient's neurological deficit was explained by a lesion that existed on the surface of the same side of the brain. It was not until 1901 that S. Kalischer provided a pathological proof of such an association. The radiographic findings of such a condition were first described by F. Parkes Weber of England in 1922 and then by V. Dimitri of Argentina in 1923. It should be noted that Dr. Sturge contributed greatly toward the understanding of muscular diseases in recognition of which he was awarded a silver medal by the Royal Society of Medicine for his dissertation on Spinal Muscular Atrophy.
It was in Paris that he met his wife, Emily Bovell, who was also a physician. They married in September 1877 and returned to London to set up a practice together. He was appointed physician and pathologist to the Royal Free Hospital, and a Lecturer to the Women's Medical School.
It may be of interest to note that Emily Bovell was one of the original half dozen women who gained admission to the Medical School of Edinburgh University, only to be physically ejected by the male students and faculty. All of these women eventually completed their medical training elsewhere and all achieved distinction in their own particular field. Emily was older than William. She developed tuberculosis, a circumstance that prompted the couple to move to Nice in France (French Riviera) in order to live in a milder climate. There they set up practice treating the wealthy and famous English and American visitors. During this time he took medical care of Queen Victoria and her family. In recognition of this service, Queen Victoria awarded him gifts and an MVO, which is an order and decoration reserved for people who have rendered service to the Royal Family of a personal nature. William stayed in Nice for 27 years. Emily Bovell died in her early 40's in 1885.
Walter Reed (1851-1902).  American army surgeon. 
Entered Army Medical Corps (1875); on frontier duty (1875-90); curator, Army Medical Museum, and Professor of bacteriology and microscopy at Army Medical College (1893); promoted major (1893). Head of commission (including James Carroll, Jesse Lazear, Aristides Agramonte) sent to Cuba to investigate cause and mode of transmission of yellow fever (1900); proved that yellow fever is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With this knowledge, it was possible to eradicate the disease by destroying the carriers. Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C., was named in his honor.
Hans Christian Gram (1853-1938) Danish bacteriologist.
The work that gained him international reputation was his development of a method of staining bacteria, to make them more visible under a microscope. The stain later played a major role in classifying bacteria. In 1891, Gram became a lecturer in pharmacology, and later to become professor of medicine. Gram staining is a method of differentiating bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932).  British physician, born in India. 
Discovered causes of malaria, 1897; won Nobel Prize for medicine, 1902. Professor, University of Liverpool and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (1902-12); physician, King's College Hospital, London (from 1912); director in chief, Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London. Author of The Prevention of Malaria (1910).
William Hunter (1861-1937).  Scottish physician.
William Hunter studied medicine at Edinburgh University, graduating in 1883. He served as a house physician at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, and studied overseas at Leipzig, Vienna, and Strassburg. From 1887 to 1890 he worked full time on laboratory research at Cambridge, devoting himself to pernicious anaemia. He was the first person to note that the alimentary and the nervous system were often affected in this disorder, and he regarded the haemolytic element as being most important and made numerous observations on the excessive pigmentation and iron deposition in the liver.
From 1895, Hunter was affiliated with the Charing Cross Hospital and the London Fever Hospital. During World War I her served in Serbia where developed de-lousing techniques to control typhus. Hunter was a sound clinician and a good teacher of medical students.
Author: Oral sepsis as a cause of septic gastritis, London, 1901; Pernicious anaemia, London, 1901; Severest anaemias, London, 1909; Historical account of Charing Cross Hospital and Medical School (University of London), London, 1914; Serbian epidemics of typhus and relapsing fever in 1915, London, 1920.
Associated eponyms:  Hunter's glossitis (William Hunter), Ucerous glossitis in pernicious anaemia; Möller's glossitis (William Hunter), Superficial excorcitation of the tongue, principally of its tip and edges; Serbian barrel, Used for eradicating lice during World War I in Serbia.
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian mystic, philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist.‪ Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century, he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophical medicine, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science, Theosophy, and Rosicrucianism.
Steiner laid the foundations for an esoteric path connected with a vocation. He delivered eleven lectures, translated from the German by Gladys Hahn, were given in Dornach from September 8 to September 18, 1924. It is now a book called Pastoral Medicine, The Collegial Working of Doctors and Priests.
Perry Nichols was born at Shellsburg, Benton County, Iowa, March 20, 1863.
The Dr. Nichols Sanatorium had a life of 60 years (1896-1956) and achieved its greatest success in Savannah, Missouri (1912-1956). More than 70,000 patients from every state and several foreign countries were treated for skin, mucosal and breast cancer. Nichols with his escharotic (caustic) method did not make the discoveries later achieved by Frederick Mohs, MD, of Mohs Chemosurgery fame. "Again let us warn you, in the light of the wisdom of all the ages, that the cure of that seemingly harmless sore (cancer) is difficult and deceptive. Don't fool yourself into thinking you will cure the very first one you attempt, without education or experience in the art. It is a fairy tale." Cancer: Its Proper Treatment and Cure by Dr. Perry Nichols B.S., M.D.
George Washington Carver (1864-1943).
Started his life as a slave and ended it as a respected and world-renowned agricultural chemist. GEORGE CARVER, M. S. in Agr., Director, EXPERIMENTAL STATION, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption," Seventh Edition, January 1940.
Carver: "I love to think of nature as an unlimited broadcasting system, through which God speaks to us every hour, if we will only tune in."
Susan La Flesche Picotte (1865-1915).  Physician.
Susan LaFlesche Picotte was the first Native American women physician in the United States. She practiced preventive medicine, and urged adoption of modern hygienic practices and public sanitation. She lobbied to have a hospital established on the Omaha reservation and won, serving as its attending physician for the last two years of her life. The hospital was renamed in her honor after her death.
Dr. Ida Scudder (1870-1960). Missionary, surgeon and founder of India's first nursing school for women. 
In 1899, Ida Scudder was one of the first women graduates of the Cornell Medical College. Shortly thereafter, she returned to India and opened a one-bed clinic in Vellore in 1900. Two years later, in 1902, she built a 40-bed hospital, the forerunner of today's 1700-bed medical center. In 1909, she started the School of Nursing, and in 1918, her fondest dream came true with the opening of a medical school for women. (Men were admitted in 1947).
Mary Rose / Mary Davies Swartz Rose (1874-1941).  American nutritionist.
Mary Swartz Rose was a noted authority on nutrition who made important contributions in both academia and government. At the time of her death, she was professor of nutrition at Columbia University's Teachers College. She attended Denison University in Granville, Ohio. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1901 and studied for a year at Mechanics Institute in Rochester, New York. From there she went on to Teachers College, where she received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1906. She then went on to Yale University, where she was awarded a Ph.D. in physiological chemistry in 1909. She returned to Teachers College, this time as an instructor in nutrition. She became an Assistant Professor in 1910 and authored several books on nutrition: Everyday Foods in War Time, 1918; Teaching Nutrition to Boys and Girls, 1932, Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics, 1939; and Feeding the Family, 1940, considered by many to be a classic in its field, in which she recalculated tables of food composition to fit ordinary recipes and foods as eaten, putting the chemical aspects of nutrition in terms a homemaker could understand and use. Long active on the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition, she contributed frequently to it, as well as to the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Home Economics, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, and others.  During the First World War, Rose took an active role in government programs. She served as director of both the Bureau of Conservation of the Federal Food Board and the New York State Food Commission. Her husband, Anton Richard Rose, was also a scientist; he served as a chemist with the Prudential Insurance Company.
Benedict Lust (February 3, 1872 – September 5, 1945). Naturopath.
was one of the founders of naturopathic medicine in the first decade of the twentieth century. Benedict Lust was a pioneer in what has come to be called Classical Naturopathy and a facilitator of holistic methods in the United States. Lust was born in Michelbach, Baden, Germany. As a youth, he became ill and was cured by Fr. Sebastian Kneipp, a famous advocate of the water cure, a popular form of healing in the 19th century. He eventually traveled to the United States as Kneipp's official representative and in the late 1890s organized the water cure movement, especially among the many first generation German Americans.
"Jesus Christ—I say it reverently—knew the possibility of physical immortality. He believed in bodily beauty; He founded Mental Healing; He perfected Spirit-power. And Naturopathy will include ultimately the supreme forces that made the Man of Galilee omnipotent."
Alexei Alexeivich Ukhtomsky (1875-1942).  Russian physiologist.
Ukhtomsky was named after a river in his Russian province. He studied medicine and became an outstanding lecturer on physiology in St. Petersburg. In his day
Alexei was a world leader in understanding the functions of the central nervous system.  He belonged to a religious group called the Old Believers, a conservative part of the Russian Orthodox Church. Alexei openly challenged his students to accept the Christian faith. A man with wide interests, Alexei once gave a talk on "The Splendor of Church Singing" at a 1912 Old Believers Congress. He died of starvation during the siege of Leningrad during World War II, at age 67.
Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) American mystic, Healer.
Edgar Cayce (1877–1945) was a renown American psychic who had the ability to give answers to questions on subjects such as healing, wars, and even had visions of the world's end. He also gave a reading about Atlantis while in a hypnotic trance. Though Cayce himself was a devout Christian and lived before the emergence of the New Age Movement, some believe he was one of the founders of the movement and influenced its teachings. He is credited as being the father of holistic medicine and the most documented psychic of the 20th century. Hundreds of books have been written about him and his life readings for individuals.
John Flynn (1880-1951).  Medical missionary.
Founder and superintendent of the Australian Inland Mission, the clergyman established the world's first Flying Doctor Service and remote "bush" hospitals, and improved communication to Australia's interior with the pedal radio.  Flynn's vision finally saw the establishment of 13 flying doctor bases around Australia, which continue to spread "a mantle of safety" across 6.9 million square kilometres, or 80% of the Australian continent. The Royal Flying Doctor Service remains the largest and most comprehensive aeromedical emergency and health care service in the world.
Edith Cavell (1865-1915).   English nurse.
First matron of Berkendael Institute in Brussels (1907), which became Red Cross hospital (1914); assisted about 200 English, French, and Belgian soldiers to escape to Dutch border (Nov.1914-July 1915); arrested by Germans, admitted her successful efforts; condemned to death by court-martial; shot along with a Belgian, Phillippe Baucq, who had furnished guides.
Rosalie Slaughter Morton (1876-1955). American surgeon, missionary.
Rosalie Morton, M.D. Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1897. She was the first woman faculty member of both the New York Polyclinic Medical School and Hospital (1912-18) and the College of Physicians and Surgeons (1916-18). During World War I she was active in hospital work, especially during the Salonica campaigns and in Serbia and France. For this work, and for her efforts that made possible the education in the United States of 60 Serbian students, she was decorated by foreign governments and the state of New York. After 1930 she engaged in private practice in Florida. She took part in public health and welfare activities, invented a number of surgical instruments and appliances, and wrote many articles, especially on gynecology and arthritis.
Oswald Theodore Avery (1877-1955), born in Nova Scotia, was a distinguished bacteriologist and research physician and one of the founders of immunochemistry (the study of the chemical aspects of immunology), showing relation of immunological specificity to chemical products of bacteria. He is best known, however, as a discoverer that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) serves as genetic material. The Oswald T. Avery Collection is a part of the Joshua Lederberg Papers, which are at the National Library of Medicine and available digitally. The collection was assembled by Nobel laureate Dr. Lederberg because of the strong connection between Dr. Avery's work and his own. The work of Avery and his lab, observes Dr. Lederberg, was "the historical platform of modern DNA research" and "betokened the molecular revolution in genetics and biomedical science generally."
Alfred Watterson McCann (1879-1931).  Nutritionist, journalist, reformer. 
During his youth Alfred McCann suffered from an ailment that he believed was remedied by proper diet. This experience marked the beginning of his life-interest in food. After attending Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland, he was graduated from Pittsburg College of the Holy Ghost (now Duquesne University) in 1899, remained there as an instructor in English, mathematics, and elocution, and studied nutrition in his spare time. He was soon engaged to write advertisements for various food concerns, including Francis H. Leggett & Company.  He wrote for the New York Globe series after series of sensational articles against manufacturers who used coal tar dyes, bleaches, inert fillers, and injurious preservatives, and against public officials who condoned such abuses. The Globe provided him with a laboratory and stood behind him in the ensuing law suits. He wrote for the New York Evening Mail after the Globe suspended publication in 1923, and established the Alfred W. McCann Laboratories, Inc., in New York, whence issued a stream of endorsements of special brands of everything from chickens to cigars.
In 1913 he published Vital Questions and Answers Concerning 15,000,000 Physically Defective Children and Starving America. In 1917 he produced a war emergency food book, Thirty Cent Bread, which urged the advantages of using cornmeal, of dehydrating instead of canning fruits and vegetables, and of killing off grainconsuming steers. These suggestions were the basis of an article in the Forum (October 1917) severely criticizing the United States Food Administration. He insisted continually on the value of the mineral salts in food in This Famishing World (1918; revised as The Science of Eating, 1919) and in The Science of Keeping Young (1926). After publishing a violent antievolution book, God-or Gorilla (1922) -- in which he focused primarily on critiquing the various fossils which were then used to support the ape-human evolution scenario-he received the degree of LL.D. from Fordham University. His Greatest of Men-Washington (1927) was a laudatory volume written to inspire young people.
In 1928 he began to broadcast food talks over the radio. In the late 20's and early 30's McCann's Pure Food Hour exposed the dangers of food additives and the illegal practices of some manufacturers. In addition, McCann discussed the virtues of a healthy diet. His influence was so great that the consumption of whole wheat bread in New York City increased dramatically during his reign.
After McCann Senior.'s death in 1931, McCann Jr. took over his father's legacy. McCann Jr.'s show focused less on breaking open the indiscretions of the food industry and more on the art of good food and wine. In 1975 Patricia McCann, Alfred Jr.'s daughter, hit the airwaves continuing the family tradition.
John Boyd Orr (1880–1971) Physician, biologist.
Sir John Boyd Orr from 1935 to 1949, was a Scottish doctor and biologist who received the Nobel Peace Prize for his scientific research into nutrition and his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. He was the co-founder and the first President (1960–1971) of the World Academy of Art and Science. In Orr's early education, the school he attended gave him a good knowledge of the Bible, which stayed with him for the rest of his life. For example, Orr concluded his 1949 acceptance speech Nobel Prize with the discussion of war and religion: "Let the churches which believe in the eternal and unchangeable truth proclaimed by Jesus of Nazareth redouble their efforts for peace so that we in our day may see the beginning of the building of the new and better world which our children shall inherit."
Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955). Scottish bacteriologist.
In 1928, Scottish bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming discovered the germ-killing properties of the "mold juice" secreted by penicillium, he knew that it could have profound medical value. Professor, London University (1928-48) first discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme (1921); and shared with Howard Florey and Ernst B. Chain 1945 Nobel prize for Physiology or Medicine, for discovery (1928) and development of penicillin, which has been hailed as "the greatest contribution medical science ever made to humanity."
Honor: Gold Medal of the University of London, 1908.
Emma Rochelle Wheeler (1882-1957).  Physician.
A woman of diverse interests, Emma Rochelle Wheeler was a trailblazing physician, hospital and nursing school founder, and an initiator of an unparalleled, prepaid hospitalization plan. Wheeler practiced medicine for almost fifty years and was well known for her assistance to young African Americans in their academic and business undertakings. An organizer of a chapter of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, she was among the early most notable and distinguished African American women leaders in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Wheeler was the founder and operator of Walden Hospital. Dedicated on July 30, 1915, Walden was the first and only African American-owned and operated medical facility in Chattanooga. In 1949 the Chattanooga branch of the NAACP voted her "Negro Mother of the Year."
Arthur Rendle-Short (1885-1955). Surgeon.
Arthur Rendle Short, a professor of surgery and member of the Open Brethren.  An accepted scholar and author in his profession, Arthur devoted much attention to examining many other fields of science, Bible scholarship and theology.  Then he preached, lectured and wrote books intended to assist fellow Christians.  Older readers may recall his "The Historic Faith in the Light of Today." (1922); "The Bible and Modern Research." (1933); Why Believe. (1938/1951); Modern Discovery and the Bible" (1942); Wonderfully Made. (1951), The Bible and Modern Medicine. (1951); Archaeology gives Evidence. (1951) and The Rock Beneath. (1955)  They were moderate sized volumes, each the result of extensive research and, as his son now tells: there was a constant struggle for truth.
Edward Bach (pronounced 'Batche', September 24, 1886 – November 27, 1936) Physician, Bacteriologist.
A British physician, homeopath and spiritual writer, best known for developing a range of remedies called the Bach flower remedies, a form of medicine inspired by classical homeopathic traditions. Starting in 1919, he worked at the London Homeopathic Hospital, where he was influenced by the work of Hahnemann. In this period, he developed seven bacterial nosodes known as the seven Bach nosodes. Their use has been mostly confined to British homeopathic practitioners. Other Bowel Nosodes were introduced by John Paterson (1890–1954) and Charles Edwin Wheeler (1868–1946) in the 1920s. Their use is based on the variable bowel bacterial flora (autointoxication) associated with persons of different homeopathic constitutional types.
Dr. ROGER DE LA FUYE (October 17, 1890 in Nantes, death the March 30, 1961 Paris)
de La Fuye made studies in Jersey and his studies of medicine in Paris; from 1912 to 1914 up to the war, it scans the United States, Canada, Alaska, Honolulu and Japan or 1913 it met the first acupuncturists. Engaged in 1914 in the infantry, immediately after the war, in 1919 he began research on cancer to physics laboratories and of pathological anatomy of the Faculty of Lyon under the direction of Professor Paviot. He spent his thesis in 1920 and in 1921, proposed the result of his experiences on the cancer, which lead to the development of the new theory of the origin self-genital cancer in a memory which is presented to the Academy of Medicine by Professor Maurice Letulle's Web site. In 1921, the brief is accepted by the Academy of Medicine and sent to the Commission on cancer.
He is devoted then to a clientele of otorhinolaryngologist to include Chateau Briande in Loire-Atlantique , then is dedicated to Acupuncture that he already exercised since 1920, thanks to the work of Mr. Dabry who brought him the indispensable complement to what he had learned in Japan. And then with the translations of the Consul MR. SOULIE Morant.
In 1934, ll began the drafting of his big treaty of Acupuncture in 2 volumes including an Atlas, it puts 14 years to finish and in which he establishes the synthesis between homeopathy and acupuncture, under the title: of HOMEOSINIÂTRIE. He organized the International Congress of Acupuncture which he chaired in France and abroad. In order to establish a link between all the Acupuncturists of the world, he created in 1946 the Archives of the French Society of Acupuncture who became in 1948: The International Review of Acupuncture which affected more than 20 foreign nations.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting, KBE, MC, FRS,‪[1]‬ FRSC (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter and Nobel laureate noted as the first person that used insulin on humans.‪ ‬
In 1923 Banting and John James Rickard Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine.‪[3]‬ Banting shared the award money with his colleague, Dr. Charles Best. As of September 2011, Banting, who received the Nobel Prize at age 32, remains the youngest Nobel laureate in the area of Physiology/Medicine. The Canadian government gave him a lifetime annuity to work on his research. Frederick Banting was voted fourth place on The Greatest Canadian.
In 1934 he was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by King George V. and became an active Vice-President of the Diabetic Association (now Diabetes UK). In May, 1935 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.‪ ‬A flame of hope was lit by Her Majesty the Queen Mother‪[32]‬ in 1989 as a tribute to Dr. Frederick Banting and all the people that have lost their lives to diabetes. The flame will remain lit until there is a cure for diabetes. When a cure is found, the flame will be extinguished by the researchers who discover the cure. The flame is located at Sir Fredrick Banting Square in London, Ontario, Canada beside the Banting House National Historic Site of Canada.
Victor Rambo (1894-1987).  Ophthalmologist, missionary to India.
President, Rambo Committee, Inc., Sight for Curable Blind, Philadelphia, 1973-87; Professor Emeritus, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, India, 1967-87; Professor opthalmology, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, India, 1957-67; inaugurator mobile eye hospitals, Vellore, 1947; Professor opthalmology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, 1947-57; surgeon, opthalmologist, Christian Hospital, Mungeli, India, 1923-47; intern, Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, 1921-23. Opthalmologist numerous sight-restoring operations for blind; affiliated with research demonstration project for mobile opthal. units, Center NSEW, from 1930; served with United Christian Missionary Society, 1923-73.
Author: (with Arin Chatterjee) The Curable Blind-Guide for Establishing and Maintaining Mobile Eye Hospitals, 1974, also numerous articles in field. Life and work subject of book Apostle of Sight, The Story of Victor Rambo, Surgeon to India's Blind (Dorothy Clarke Wilson).
Recipient Kaisar I Hind Gold medal for public service in India King George VI, 1947, Ehrenzeller Award Pennsylvania Hospital, 1972, Certified Appreciation World Conv. Chs. Christ, 1974, Pranam Patra Award Punjab Government.
Detlev Wulf Bronk (1897-1975).  American biologist. 
Founded biophysics; pioneered use of electro-microscopy to monitor human nerve network. Professor, Swarthmore (1926-29), University of Pennsylvania (1929-49), head of Institute of Neurology there (1936-40, 1942-49); president of Johns Hopkins University (1949-53), Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, now Rockefeller University (1953-68). Chairman, National Research Council (1946-50); president, National Academy of Sciences (1950-62). A plaque in front of the Detlev Wulf Bronk Laboratory on the campus of the Rockefeller University in New York City: "He was a rare individual, a scientist, educator, and humanist."
Gordon Stifler Seagrave (1897 - 1965), surgeon, writer, medical missionary.
Born in Rangoon, he was the son of American Baptist missionaries Rev. Albert Ernest Seagrave and Alice Vinton. Seagrave followed their path and became a missionary and medical doctor in Burma. He was sometimes referred to by the title of his book, "Burma Surgeon", or as Gordon Surgeon Seagrave. Founded hospitals in Burma, practiced there for 40 years.
He was arrested and charged with treason by the newly independent Burmese government in 1950.‪[4]‬ He chose to stand trial rather than be perceived as fleeing. He was sentenced in January 1951 to six years at hard labor, on charges that he wrote a letter that helped Karen rebels arrest a government commissioner, and that he gave medical help to the Karen rebels. The sentence was later reduced to six months, and in November 1951 the verdict was overturned by Burma's three-man Supreme Court and he was declared not guilty. He suffered dysentery and malaria in part from his time in jail.‪ ‬
D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones (1898-1981) Physician, pastor. 
Trained in London for a medical career and was associated with the famous Doctor Thomas Horder. During his medical years he was a much sought after physician and was well respected in his field.
Ehrenfried Pfeiffer (1899 - 1961) was a German scientist, soil scientist, leading advocate of biodynamic agriculture, anthroposophist and disciple of Rudolf Steiner. In the early 20th century, Pfeiffer while in Switzerland observed that frost patterns early the morning on a butcher's window were angular and chaotic whereas on a florist's window were graceful and fernlike, even resembling the plants within the store. Pfieffer's philosophy was vitalistic, viewing a concept of "formative forces" directing the structure and properties of ice crystals condensing onto plate glass.
He found that pure copper chloride solution gave a constant, crystal formation when the environment (laboratory) was fixed. He then introduced impurities and found that resultant modification of solute was always characteristic for the material added to the solution and then dried for crystalization. Most importantly, this was the case for whole human blood. Pfieffer eventually determined the typical, healthy pattern formed from blood when added to copper chloride solution. And blood from an ill person further modified the crystal pattern and did so differently, depending on the disease from the blood donor suffered. This work has been carried on by the author's colleague (and PanAmerican visiting instructor) in Argentina, Dr. Vera. He gave us a class in Nevis some years ago with proof and pictures and it fascinated all attendees.
Carlos Chagas Filho (1910–2000): Neuroscientist who headed the Pontifical Academy of Sciences for 16 years. He studied the Shroud of Turin and his "the Origin of the Universe", "the Origin of Life", and "the Origin of Man" involved an understanding between Catholicism and Science. He was from Rio de Janeiro.
Margaret Mead, (1901-1978). American anthropologist, writer.
"Dr. Mead was not only an anthropologist and ethnologist of the first rank but also something of a national oracle on other subjects ranging from atomic politics to feminism," wrote Alan Whitman in the New York Times obituary. As a professional she altered the scope and approach of her science; as a human being she embodied passionate concern and sensible humanism; as a celebrity "she lent her support to dozens of causes," wrote Boyce Rensberger, "above all, to the cause of greater understanding and human harmony."
Margaret Mead was an authority on more than a dozen aspects of human science, any one of which would be sufficient to occupy the attention of most individuals. "She did many things simultaneously--but she did them all well," John Willey, Mead's editor at Morrow for thirty years, told Publishers Weekly. As Newsweek's Elizabeth Peer noted, "the obsession that ruled such diversity was to learn how people cope with change." John Thompson of Harper's summed up Mead's career as a continual study of "man's cultural evolution, particularly as it is marked in the successive adaptations of generations." She was concerned not only with the "generation gap" but with gaps in general. She was an arbiter, a peacemaker, trying to defuse emotionally laden conflicts with facts and common sense. Life described her as "the cool anthropologist, rational grandmother, symbol of common sense to millions of Americans."
Manly Palmer Hall (March 18, 1901 – August 29, 1990) was a Canadian-born author and mystic. He is best known for his 1928 work The Secret Teachings of All Ages.
More than 80 years later, "with more than a million copies sold, The Secret Teachings of All Ages remains one of the most popular introductions to esoteric traditions. The Philosophical Research Society still maintains a research library of over 50,000 volumes,‪[18]‬ and also sells and publishes metaphysical, health related, psychological, and spiritual books, mostly those authored by Hall. After his death, some of Manly Hall's rare alchemy books were sold to keep the PRS in operation. "Acquisition of the Manly Palmer Hall Collection in 1995 provided the Getty Research Institute with one of the world's leading collections of alchemy, esoterica, and hermetica."
John Frederick Joseph Cade (1912-1980). Medical scientist, psychiatrist.
January 1946, Cade returned to the mental hygiene branch, now in the Department of Health, becoming medical superintendent and psychiatrist at the Repatriation Mental Hospital, Bundoora. Suspecting that some excessive toxin in the urine of manic patients was a product of metabolic disorder, he experimented on guinea-pigs with a disused hospital kitchen as his laboratory. He found that the animals became extremely lethargic and were protected from the toxicity of injected urea when lithium carbonate was given simultaneously. Taking lithium himself with no ill effect, he then used it to treat ten patients with chronic or recurrent mania, on whom he found it to have a pronounced calming effect. Cade's remarkably successful results were detailed in his paper, 'Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement', published in the Medical Journal of Australia (1949). He subsequently found that lithium was also of some value in assisting depressives. His discovery of the efficacy of a cheap, naturally occurring and widely available element in dealing with manic-depressive disorders provided an alternative to the existing therapies of shock treatment or prolonged hospitalization.
Although the use of lithium revolutionized the treatment of manic-depressive disorders from the 1960s, it was not until 1970 that Cade gained international recognition for his work. That year he received the psychiatric award of the Taylor Manor Hospital, Maryland, United States of America, and was made a distinguished fellow of the American Psychiatric Association. In 1974 he shared the second international award of the Kittay Scientific Foundation in New York with the Danish professor Mogens Schou, whose large clinical trials had validated Cade's research. Appointed A.O. in 1976, Cade was guest of honour that year at an international lithium conference held at New York University's school of medicine.
An 'honourable, upright Christian gentleman', Cade had a mordant sense of humour and an unassuming, rather withdrawn manner. He was modest about his discovery: in his book, Mending the Mind (1979), he discussed the use of lithium treatment without mentioning his own part in it.
Broda Otto Barnes (14 April 1906 – 1 November 1988) Physician.
An American physician who studied endocrine dysfunction, particularly hypothyroidism.‪ ‬ In the 1970s, Barnes published several books arguing that hypothyroidism was underdiagnosed in the U.S. and was responsible for a wide range of health problems. Barnes developed and promoted a diagnostic test for thyroid function that became known as the "Barnes Basal Temperature Test". Barnes treated hypothyroidism by prescribing patients a daily dose of thyroid hormone. He recommended starting with a small dose, and then slowly increasing the dosage in monthly intervals until symptoms resolved and waking body temperature was between 97.8F and 98.2F. Barnes' views on the prevalence of hypothyroidism were never widely accepted by the medical community and run counter to the current medical understanding of thyroid function, but they have been embraced by some elements of the alternative medicine community. Classic Book: Hypothyroidism: The Unsuspected Illness (1976).

William Philpott, MD (27 March 1919 - 7 July 2009). specialty training and practice in psychiatry, neurology, electroencephalography, nutrition, environmental medicine and toxicology. He was a founding member of the Academy of Orthomolecular Psychiatry. He is a fellow of the Orthomolecular Psychiatric Society and the Society of Environmental Medicine and Toxicology.

Between 1970 and 1975, he did a research project searching for the causes of major mental illnesses and degenerative diseases, which resulted in the publication of the books, Brain Allergies and Victory Over Diabetes. Retiring in 1990 after 40 years of medical practice, he engaged in research as a member of an Institutional Review Board, which followed strict FDA guidelines. In this capacity, he guided physicians and gathered data on the treatment and prevention of degenerative diseases using magnetic therapy.

The Linus Pauling Award was presented to William H. Philpott, M.D. in 1998 by the Orthomolecular Health Society, "for his scientific leadership and scholarship spanning the entire history of Orthomolecular. It was Dr. Philpotts' dream to see biomagnets commonly prescribed by doctors as a non-invasive approach to disease management and reversal.

A SMOKH member remarks: Dr. Philpott cam to Chicago and stayed at my house for several days. dur our conversations he often reference his 'Christian' duty to help the mentally ill patient recover... he was one of my favorite teachers, a real 'Doctor' in every way. good to remember him!

Paul Brand (1914-2003).
Paul Brand was born in 1914 in the mountains of India, where his parents were missionaries. He went to London, England, for his education and had his medical and surgical training at London University. In 1946 Paul and his wife, Margaret, who is also a doctor, went to India, where Paul taught surgery at the Christian Medical College and Hospital in Vellore. Dr. Brand became the first surgeon in the world to use reconstructive surgery to correct the deformities from leprosy in the hands and feet. His pioneering work led to many honors. He was elected Huntarian Professor of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1952.  In 1961 he was honored by Queen Elizabeth with appointment as "Commander of the Order of the British Empire." He was also the recipient of the Distinguished Service Award from the Department of Health and Human Services, United States Public Health Service.
"Dr. Paul Brand was known in medical circles for two major accomplishments. First, he pioneered the startling idea that the loss of fingers and toes in leprosy was due entirely to injury and infection and was thus preventable.  Leprosy attacks chiefly the nervous system, and resultant tissue abuse occurs because the patient loses the warnings of pain-not because of inherent decay brought on by the disease. The theory, radically new when Brand first proposed it as a missionary surgeon in India, has gained worldwide acceptance. Second, he was hailed as a skilled and inventive hand surgeon, and most major textbooks on hand surgery contain chapters by him. Brand was the first to apply tendon transfer techniques to the specific problems of leprosy patients, whose hands often harden into rigid 'claw-hands.'"
Ivan Illich (4 September 1926 – 2 December 2002) was an Austrian philosopher, Roman Catholic priest, and "maverick social critic"‪‬ of the institutions of contemporary Western culture and their effects on the provenance and practice of education, medicine, work, energy use, transportation, and economic development.
In the 1970s, Illich was popular among leftist intellectuals in France, his thesis having been discussed in particular by André Gorz. However, his influence declined after the 1981 election of François Mitterrand as Illich was considered too pessimistic at a time when the French Left took control of the government.‪[5]‬
In the 1980s and beyond, Illich traveled extensively, mainly splitting his time between the United States, Mexico, and Germany. He held an appointment as a Visiting Professor of Philosophy, Science, Technology and Society at Penn State. He also taught at the University of Bremen and University of Hagen.‪[8]‬ During his last days of his life he admitted that he was greatly influenced by one of the Indian economists and adviser to M.K. Gandhi, J.C. Kumarappa, most notably, his book, Economy of Permanence.‪ ‬
In his Medical Nemesis, first published in 1975, also known as Limits to Medicine, Illich subjected contemporary Western medicine to detailed attack. He argued that the medicalization in recent decades of so many of life's vicissitudes—birth and death, for example—frequently caused more harm than good and rendered many people in effect lifelong patients. He marshalled a body of statistics to show what he considered the shocking extent of post-operative side-effects and drug-induced illness in advanced industrial society. He introduced to a wider public the notion of iatrogenic disease, which had been scientifically established a century earlier by British nurse Florence Nightingale (1820–1910). Others have since voiced similar views, but none so trenchantly, perhaps, as Illich.
Jérôme Jean Louis Marie Lejeune (1926-1994).  French geneticist.  Physician. 
The father of modern genetics.  In 1959, Lejeune identified the human chromosomal abnormality linked to Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, one of the most common forms of mental retardation and the first chromosomal disorder to be positively identified. Lejeune's discovery marked a turning point in the new science of cytogenetics (the scientific study of genetic variations at the chromosomal level). Institute Progenese, Paris; Professor fundamental genetics Faculty Medicine, Necker-Enfantsmalades, Paris, l969-94; chief Service, Hopital Enfants Malades, Paris, l964-94; Director, National Science School Center, Paris, l963-64; attending, National Science School Center, Paris, l952-63.  Education: The University of Paris (M.D., 1951; Ph.D., 1960).
Member:  Royal Society Medicine (London), American Academy Arts and Sciences, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Royal Academy of Sciences (Stockholm), Academy Moral and Political Sciences, National Academy Medicine (Paris).  Roman Catholic.
Honors: Recipient Kennedy prize, l962, Znanie diploma, l964, William Allen Meml. award, l969, Feltrinelli prize, l984. "He was a man of science who lived his Christian faith in his profession work, heroically, showing his faith with a simplicity and joy, serving life with a full devotion and complete disinterest," said Cardinal Angelini, the former president of the Pontifical Council for Health Care.
Paul Carlson (1928-1964).  A missionary doctor in Congo, ministering to hundreds until he was seized hostage, tortured, and martyred in a rebel Simba attack. "Making a Mark around the World - Paul Carlson: A Sacrificial Martyr.

Professor J R (JR) Worsley (14 September 1923 – 2 June 2003)

Founder and teacher of a style of acupuncture now known as Classical Five-Element Acupuncture®. The following is an extract: "The story of his life reflects the extraordinary nature of this pioneering and innovative man. His students are indebted to JR for the gift of this work which involves engaging with nature in all its variety and richness. For me and many others, he drew aside the veil and enabled us to experience the spirit that infuses all form. He showed how the more we find our compassion, the more sensitive and accurate are our perceptions. He taught us how to sense the stultification which arises when nature is out of balance and how to encourage the quality of boundless freedom that is characteristic of health."
Father Claude Larre SJ., the Jesuit scholar of the Chinese medical classics, considered that it was JR's ability to use colour, sound, odour and particularly emotion, to diagnose the patient's imbalance that made him a true practitioner of classical Chinese medicine. JR was uncompromising in this approach. He taught that any other means, such as by the pulses, symptoms, or a person's description of their internal state, was always a second or third rate guide and unreliable in terms of diagnosing the person's CF. I asked him how he came to recognise the importance and supreme value of this method, when he first met it in Korea and Japan. His reply was that as soon as he encountered this way of working it seemed deeply right and familiar to him.
It was his teachers in Japan and Korea, who worked with the five element style of practice, who conferred on JR the title of Master of Acupuncture and the role of preserving and carrying forward this lineage. Other key aspects to this style included certain blocks to treatment, such as the astonishingly effective treatment for 'possession' using the internal or external dragon points; the treatment of two conditions that create life threatening states, the husband-wife imbalance and aggressive energy; and the use of entry and exit points to clear blocks which can arise in the flow of a person's qi.
JR often told us that if we wanted to understand acupuncture we should go and look at a tree, and then really look at the tree.

Professor Worsley made a cordial visit to the author's acupuncture school, circa 1983, and was found to be a dedicated gentleman.

SMOKH is part of the United Grand Priories of the Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem.